# Appendix 1: Links to maths and science

As outlined in the DfE subject content document, through their work in design and technology students must apply relevant knowledge, skills and understanding from key stage 3 and 4 courses in the sciences and maths.

They should use the metric and International System of Units (SI) system but also be aware that some materials and components retain the use of imperial units.

Through the assessment of their knowledge and understanding of technical principles students must demonstrate an understanding of the mathematical and scientific requirements shown in the following tables. The examples in the tables below are illustrative of how the mathematical skills and scientific knowledge and skills identified could be applied in design and technology.

Students must be able to apply the following mathematical skills.

### 1 Arithmetic and numerical computation

Ref

Mathematical skills requirements

Examples of design and technology applications

1a

Recognise and use expressions in decimal and standard form.

Calculation of quantities of materials, costs and sizes.

1b

Use ratios, fractions and percentages.

Scaling drawings, analysing responses to user questionnaires.

1c

Calculate surface area and volume.

Determining quantities of materials.

### 2 Handling data

Ref

Mathematical skills requirements

Examples of design and technology applications

2a

Presentation of data, diagrams, bar charts and histograms.

Construct and interpret frequency tables; present information on design decisions.

### 3 Graphs

Ref

Mathematical skills requirements

Examples of design and technology applications

3a

Plot, draw and interpret appropriate graphs.

Analysis and presentation of performance data and client survey responses.

3b

Translate information between graphical and numeric form.

Extracting information from technical specifications.

### 4 Geometry and trigonometry

Ref

Mathematical skills requirements

Examples of design and technology applications

4a

Use angular measures in degrees.

Measurement and marking out, creating tessellated patterns.

4b

Visualise and represent 2D and 3D forms including two dimensional representations of 3D objects.

Graphic presentation of design ideas and communicating intentions to others.

4c

Calculate areas of triangles and rectangles, surface areas and volumes of cubes.

Determining the quantity of materials required.

Students must know and apply the following scientific knowledge and skills.

### 1 Use scientific vocabulary, terminology and definitions

Ref

Scientific knowledge and skills requirements

Examples of design and technology applications

1a

Quantities, units and symbols.

Appropriate use of scientific terms when developing a design brief and specifications.

1b

SI units (eg kg, g, mg; km, m, mm; kJ, J), prefixes and powers of ten for orders of magnitude (eg tera, giga, mega, kilo, centi, milli, micro and nano).

Calculation of quantities, measurement of materials and selection of components.

1c

Metals and non-metals and the differences between them, on the basis of their characteristic physical and chemical properties.

Classification of the types and properties of a range of materials.

### 2 Life cycle assessment and recycling

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Scientific knowledge and skills requirements

Examples of design and technology applications

2a

The basic principles in carrying out a life-cycle assessment of a material or product.

Selection of materials and components based on ethical factors, taking into consideration the ecological and social footprint of materials.

### 3 Using materials

Ref

Scientific knowledge and skills requirements

Examples of design and technology applications

3a

The conditions which cause corrosion and the process of corrosion and oxidisation.

Understanding of properties of materials and how they need to be protected from corrosion through surface treatments and finishes.

Appreciate how oxidisation can be used when dyeing materials.

3b

The composition of some important alloys in relation to their properties and uses.

Selecting appropriate materials.

3c

The physical properties of [materials], how the properties of materials are selected related to their uses.

Knowledge of properties of materials to be applied when designing and making.

3d

The main energy sources available for use on Earth (including fossil fuels, nuclear fuel, bio-fuel, wind, hydro-electricity, the tides and the Sun), the ways in which they are used and the distinction between renewable and non- renewable sources.

Understanding of how to choose appropriate energy sources.

3e

The action of forces and how levers and gears transmit and transform the effects of forces.

Knowledge of the function of mechanical devices to produce different sorts of movement, changing the magnitude and direction of forces.