3.3 Designing and making principles

Students should know and understand that all design and technology activities take place within a wide range of contexts.

They should also understand how the prototypes they develop must satisfy wants or needs and be fit for their intended use. For example, the home, school, work or leisure.

They will need to demonstrate and apply knowledge and understanding of designing and making principles in relation to the following areas:

  • investigation, primary and secondary data
  • environmental, social and economic challenge
  • the work of others
  • design strategies
  • communication of design ideas
  • prototype development
  • selection of materials and components
  • tolerances
  • material management
  • specialist tools and equipment
  • specialist techniques and processes

3.3.1 Investigation, primary and secondary data

Use primary and secondary data to understand client and/or user needs

Content

Potential links to maths and science

How the following techniques are used and applied:

  • market research, interviews and human factors including ergonomics
  • focus groups and product analysis and evaluation
  • the use of anthropometric data and percentiles.

Analysing responses to user questionnaires.

Frequency tables and information on design decisions.

Presentation of client survey responses.

Percentiles ranges used in anthropometrics and/or ergonomics.

How to write a design brief and produce a design and manufacturing specification

Content

Potential links to maths and science

Students should consider their own needs, wants and interests and those of others.

 

Carry out investigations in order to identfy problems and needs

Content

Potential links to maths and science

Why a designer considers alterations to a brief and modifying the brief as required.

Comparative chart of performance criteria as for existing products to help evaluate them.

3.3.2 Environmental, social and economic challenge

Content

Potential links to maths and science

The environment, social and economic challenges that influence design and making.

How the following might present opportunities and constraints that influence the processes of designing and making:

  • deforestation
  • possible increase in carbon dioxide levels leading to potential global warming
  • the need for fair trade.

Selection of materials based on ethical factors and social and environmental footprints.

3.3.3 The work of others

Content

Potential links to maths and science

Students should investigate, analyse and evaluate the work of past and present designers and companies to inform their own designing.

Students should investigate the work of a minimum of two of the following designers:

  • Harry Beck
  • Marcel Breuer
  • Coco Chanel
  • Norman Foster
  • Sir Alec Issigonis
  • William Morris
  • Alexander McQueen
  • Mary Quant
  • Louis Comfort Tiffany
  • Raymond Templer
  • Marcel Breuer
  • Gerrit Reitveld
  • Charles Rennie Macintosh
  • Aldo Rossi
  • Ettore Sottsass
  • Philippe Starck
  • Vivienne Westwood.

Students should investigate the work of a minimum of two of the following companies:

  • Braun
  • Dyson
  • Apple
  • Alessi
  • Under Armour
  • Zara
  • Gap
  • Primark.

3.3.4 Design strategies

Generate imaginative and creative design ideas using a range of different design strategies

Content

Potential links to maths and science

How different strategies can be applied, including:

  • collaboration
  • user centered design
  • a systems approach
  • iterative design
  • avoiding design fixation.
 

Explore and develop their own ideas

Content

Potential links to maths and science

How this can be done using an iterative process including:
  • sketching
  • modelling
  • testing
  • evaluation of their work to improve outcomes.

Measurement and marking out of component parts for models.

3.3.5 Communication of design ideas

Content

Potential links to maths and science

Develop, communicate, record and justify design ideas using a range of appropriate techniques such as:

  • freehand sketching, isometric and perspective
  • 2D and 3D drawings
  • system and schematic diagrams
  • annotated drawings that explain detailed development or the conceptual stages of designing
  • exploded diagrams to show constructional detail or assembly
  • working drawings: 3rd angle orthographic, using conventions, dimensions and drawn to scale
  • audio and visual recordings in support of aspects of designing: eg interviews with client or users
  • mathematical modelling
  • computer based tools
  • modelling: working directly with materials and components, eg card modelling, producing a toile when designing garments, constructing a circuit using breadboard.

Scaling drawings.

3.3.6 Prototype development

Content

Potential links to maths and science

Design and develop prototypes in response to client wants and needs. Note the term prototype can be used to describe either a product or system.

How the development of prototypes:

  • satisfy the requirements of the brief
  • respond to client wants and needs
  • demonstrate innovation
  • are functional
  • consider aesthetics
  • are potentially marketable.

Students should know and understand how to evaluate prototypes and be able to:

  • reflect critically, responding to feedback when evaluating their own prototypes
  • suggest modifications to improve them through inception and manufacture
  • assess if prototypes are fit for purpose.

A presentation of data; tabulate responses and findings.

In relation to at least one of the following material categories students must develop and apply an in-depth knowledge and understanding of sections Selection of materials and components to Specialist techniques and processes

  • papers and boards
  • timber based materials
  • metal based materials
  • polymers
  • textile based materials
  • electronic and mechanical systems.

3.3.7 Selection of materials and components

Content

Potential links to maths and science

Appropriate materials and components to make a prototype.

How to select and use materials and components appropriate to the task considering:

  • functional need
  • cost
  • availability.

SI units; identify appropriate commercially available stock forms and select appropriately.

Composition of some important alloys; selecting appropriate metal alloys as required.

3.3.8 Tolerances

Content

Potential links to maths and science

Work accurately using tolerances.

How a range of materials are cut, shaped and formed to designated tolerances.

Why tolerances are applied during making activities.

SI units eg accurate use of appropriate tolerances +/- 2mm, resistor tolerance and seam allowance.

3.3.9 Material management

Cut materials efficiently and minimise waste

Content

Potential links to maths and science

The importance of planning the cutting and shaping of material to minimise waste eg nesting of shapes and parts to be cut from material stock forms.

How additional material may be removed by a cutting method or required for seam allowance, joint overlap etc.

Expression in decimal and standard form eg calculation of required materials.

Calculate surface area and volume eg material requirements.

Angular measures eg measurement and marking out.

SI units eg measurement of materials and components using standard units as appropriate.

The use of reference datum points and co-ordinates.

Use appropriate marking out methods, data points and coordinates

Content

Potential links to maths and science

The value of using measurement and marking out to create an accurate and quality prototype.

The use of data points and coordinates including the use of reference points, lines and surfaces, templates, jigs and/or patterns

Use angular measures eg tessellation of component parts.

Calculating material area eg working out the quantity of materials required.

SI units eg accurate use of appropriate units of measurement to calculate material requirements.

3.3.10 Specialist tools and equipment

Content

Potential links to maths and science

How to select and use specialist tools and equipment, including hand tools, machinery, digital design & manufacture, appropriate for the material and/or task to complete quality outcomes.

How to use them safely to protect themselves and others from harm.

 

3.3.11 Specialist techniques and processes

Content

Potential links to maths and science

How to select and use specialist techniques and processes appropriate for the material and/or task and use them to the required level of accuracy in order to complete quality outcomes.

How to use them safely to shape, fabricate and construct a high quality prototype, including techniques such as wastage, addition, deforming and reforming.

 

Surface treatments and finishes

Content

Potential links to maths and science

Students should know and understand that surface treatments and finishes are applied for functional and aesthetic purposes.

How to prepare a material for a treatment or finish.

How to apply an appropriate surface treatment or finish.

Corrosion and oxidation eg how corrosion and/or oxidation affects different materials, how they can be protected through different surface treatments and finishes.