3.2 Socio-cultural influences and well-being in physical activity and sport

3.2.1 Sports psychology

Students should develop knowledge and understanding of the psychological factors that can affect performers in physical activity and sport.

3.2.1.1 Classification of skills (basic/complex, open/closed)

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Skill and ability

Definitions of skill and ability.

Classifications of skill

Basic definition of the following skill classifications:

  • basic/complex
  • open/closed
  • self-paced/externally paced
  • gross/fine.

Students should be taught to choose and justify the appropriate classifications in relation to sporting examples.

Definitions of types of goals

Basic definitions of the following types of goals:

  • performance goals (personal performance/no social comparison)
  • outcome goals (winning/result).

Appropriate performance and/or outcome targets for sporting examples.

3.2.1.2 The use of goal setting and SMART targets to improve and/or optimise performance

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The use and evaluation of setting performance and outcome goals in sporting examples

Performance and outcome goals can be combined. However, it is generally accepted that outcome goals should be avoided as they rely on factors that cannot be controlled, eg other performers.

Beginners prefer to avoid outcome goals because failure can demotivate/winning may be an unrealistic goal.

The use of SMART targets to improve and/or optimise performance

SMART targets of goal setting are:

  • specific
  • measureable
  • accepted
  • realistic
  • time bound.

3.2.1.3 Basic information processing

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Basic information processing model

The role of each stage (input, decision making, output and feedback) of the model.

Input – information from the display (senses), selective attention.

Decision making – selection of appropriate response from memory. The role of long term and short term memory.

Output – information sent to muscles to carry out the response.

Feedback – received via self (intrinsic) and/or others (extrinsic).

Draw (in a box format) and/or explain the stages of a basic model of information processing.

Students should be taught to apply the basic information processing model to skills from sporting examples.

3.2.1.4 Guidance and feedback on performance

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Identify examples of, and evaluate, the effectiveness of the use of types of guidance, with reference to beginners and elite level performers

Evaluation of the use of the following types of guidance with specific links to:

  • visual (seeing)
  • verbal (hearing)
  • manual (assist movement – physical)
  • mechanical (use of objects/aids).

Students need to be taught to be able to choose and justify which types of guidance are appropriate for beginners and/or elite level performers. This should include examples of how the guidance can be given, eg visual via demonstration.

Identify examples of, and evaluate, the effectiveness of the use of types of feedback, with reference to beginners and elite level performers

Evaluation of the use of the following types of feedback with specific links to beginners and to elite level performers:

  • positive/negative
  • knowledge of results/knowledge of performance
  • extrinsic/intrinsic.

Students need to be taught what each type of feedback entails and be able to choose and justify which types of feedback are appropriate for a beginners and/or an elite level performers.

3.2.1.5 Mental preparation for performance

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Arousal

Definition of arousal.

Inverted-U theory

The shape of the ‘inverted-U’ placed appropriately in a graph depicting y axis (performance level – low to high) and x axis (arousal level – low to high).

Students should be taught to draw an inverted-U graph with both x and y axis appropriately labelled.

Describe the inverted-U graph.

The relationship between arousal level and performance level, eg when under aroused, performance level is low/under or over arousal causing low performance levels.

How optimal arousal levels vary according to the skill being performed in a physical activity or sport

Link appropriate arousal level (high/low) to gross/fine skills in sporting actions.

Link skills (not sports) to an appropriate arousal level, eg a tackle in rugby will need a high arousal level.

How arousal can be controlled using stress management techniques before or during a sporting performance

Knowledge of the following stress management techniques:

  • deep breathing
  • mental rehearsal/visualisation/imagery
  • positive self talk.

Students should be taught to explain how these techniques are carried out, using sporting examples.

Understand the difference between direct and indirect aggression with application to specific sporting examples

Definition of direct and indirect aggression.

Students should be taught to know the meaning of the terms direct and indirect aggression, and be able to suggest examples of direct/indirect aggression in sport.

Understand the characteristics of introvert and extrovert personality types, including examples of sports which suit these particular personality types

Characteristics of an introvert:

  • shy/quiet
  • thoughtful
  • enjoy being on their own/loner.

Tend to play individual sports when:

  • concentration/precision (fine skill) is required
  • low arousal is required.

Characteristics of an extrovert:

  • enjoy interaction with others/sociable/aroused by others
  • enthusiastic/talkative
  • prone to boredom when isolated/by themselves.

Tend to play team sports when:

  • there is a fast pace
  • concentration may need to be low
  • gross skills are used.

Definition of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, as used in sporting examples

Intrinsic is from within – for pride/self-satisfaction/personal achievement.

Extrinsic is:
  • from another source/person
  • tangible – certificates/trophies, medals
  • intangible – praise/feedback/applause.

Students should be taught to explain appropriate examples of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation linked to sporting examples.

Evaluation of the merits of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in sport

Intrinsic is generally deemed more effective.

Overuse of extrinsic can undermine the strength of intrinsic.

Performer can become reliant on extrinsic.

Intrinsic is more likely to lead to continued effort and participation.

Extrinsic rewards may result in feelings of pride/self-satisfaction.

3.2.2 Socio-cultural influences

Students should develop knowledge and understanding of the socio-cultural factors that impact on physical activity and sport, and the impact of sport on society.

3.2.2.1 Engagement patterns of different social groups in physical activity and sport

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Engagement patterns of different social groups and the factors affecting participation

Engagement patterns in physical activity and sport can differ between different social groups.

Understand factors that contribute to engagement patterns in the following social groups:

  • gender
  • race/religion/culture
  • age
  • family/friends/peers
  • disability.

Students should be taught to make justifiable links between the following factors and their relevance to engagement patterns of the groups above:

  • attitudes
  • role models
  • accessibility (to facilities/clubs/activities)
  • media coverage
  • sexism/stereotyping
  • culture/religion/religious festivals
  • family commitments
  • available leisure time
  • familiarity
  • education
  • socio-economic factors/disposable income
  • adaptability/inclusiveness.

3.2.2.2 Commercialisation of physical activity and sport

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Commercialisation

Definition of commercialisation.

The relationship between sport, sponsorship and the media.

Types of sponsorship and the media

Definitions of sponsorship and the media.

Types of sponsorship:

  • financial
  • clothing and equipment, including footwear
  • facilities.

Types of media:

  • television
  • radio
  • the press
  • the internet
  • social media.

Positive and negative impacts of sponsorship and the media

The positive and the negative impacts of commercialised activity (sponsorship and the media) on the following:

  • performer
  • sport
  • official
  • audience/spectator
  • sponsor/company.

Students should be taught to justify why the impact is positive and/or negative.

Positive and negative impacts of technology

The positive and the negative impacts of technology on the following:

  • performer
  • sport
  • official
  • audience/spectator
  • sponsor/company.

Students should be taught to justify why the impact is positive and/or negative.

Teaching should make students aware of examples of technology used in sport (eg Hawkeye, Television Match Official). However, the focus should be on technology generically, not on specific types of technology (eg Hawkeye, Television Match Official).

3.2.2.3 Ethical and socio-cultural issues in physical activity and sport

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Conduct of performers

Definitions of the following terms:

  • etiquette
  • sportsmanship
  • gamesmanship
  • contract to compete.

Students should be taught sporting examples of these terms.

Prohibited substances

Categories of prohibited substances, including the basic positive effects and negative side effects:

  • stimulants
  • narcotic analgesics
  • anabolic agents
  • peptide hormones (EPO)
  • diuretics.

Prohibited methods (blood doping)

How blood doping occurs and the effects/side effects of doing it.

Blood doping involves the removal of blood a few weeks prior to competition. The blood is frozen and re-injected just before competition.

Students should be taught how blood doping leads to increased red blood cell count and be able to evaluate which types of sporting performers this could benefit.

Side effects can be:

  • thickening of blood (viscosity)
  • potential infection
  • potential for heart attack
  • embolism (blockage of vessel).

Drugs subject to certain restrictions (beta blockers)

Beta blockers are taken to:

  • reduce heart rate, muscle tension and blood pressure
  • reduce the effects of adrenaline
  • improve fine control/preciseness.

Side effects can lead to:

  • nausea
  • weakness
  • heart problems.

Beta blockers should be prescribed by a medical professional.

Which type of performers may use different types of performance enhancing drugs (PEDs) with sporting examples

Stimulants – alertness

Narcotic analgesics – pain killers from over training

Anabolic agents – muscle mass

Diuretics – lose weight

Peptide hormones – oxygen carrying capacity

Blood doping – oxygen carrying capacity

Beta blockers – for fine motor control

Students should be taught to understand in which sports performers may decide to use PEDs, with examples.

The advantages and disadvantages for the performer of taking PEDs

Advantages include:

  • increased chances of success
  • fame
  • wealth
  • level playing field.

Disadvantages include:

  • cheating/immoral
  • associated health risks
  • fines
  • bans
  • reputational damage.

The disadvantages to the sport/event of performers taking PEDs

Disadvantages include:

  • reputation
  • credibility.

Spectator behaviour (the positive and the negative effects of spectators at events)

The positive influence of spectators at matches/events:

  • creation of atmosphere
  • home-field advantage (for home team/individuals).

The negative influence of spectators at matches/events:

  • negative effect on performance as a result of increased pressure
  • potential for crowd trouble/hooliganism
  • safety costs/concerns
  • negative effect on participation numbers amongst younger performers.

Reasons why hooliganism occurs

Reasons for hooliganism:

  • rivalries
  • hype
  • fuelled by alcohol/drugs
  • gang culture
  • frustration (eg at official's decisions)
  • display of masculinity.

Strategies employed to combat hooliganism/spectator behaviour

Strategies include:

  • early kick-offs
  • all-seater stadia
  • segregation of fans
  • improved security
  • alcohol restrictions
  • travel restrictions/banning orders
  • education/promotional activity/campaigns and high profile endorsements.

Students should be taught to evaluate the effectiveness of these strategies, eg high costs of security versus safety of spectators.

3.2.3 Health, fitness and well-being

Students should develop knowledge and understanding of the benefits of participating in physical activity and sport to health, fitness and well-being.

3.2.3.1 Physical, emotional and social health, fitness and well-being

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Linking participation in physical activity, exercise and sport to health, well-being and fitness, and how exercise can suit the varying needs of different people

Reasons for participation in physical activity, exercise and sport, and how performance in physical activity/sport can increase health, well-being and fitness.

Physical health and well-being:

  • improves heart function
  • improves efficiency of the body systems
  • reduces the risk of some illness
  • able to do everyday tasks
  • to avoid obesity.

Mental health and well-being:

  • reduces stress/tension
  • release of feel good hormones (serotonin)
  • able to control emotions.

Social health and well-being:

  • opportunities to socialise/make friends
  • cooperation
  • teamwork
  • have essential human needs (food, shelter, clothing).

Fitness:

  • improves fitness
  • reduces the chances of injury
  • can aid in the physical ability to work, eg on your feet all day/manual labour.

3.2.3.2 The consequences of a sedentary lifestyle

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The consequences of a sedentary lifestyle

Definitions of sedentary and lifestyle.

Possible consequences of a sedentary lifestyle:

  • weight gain/obesity
  • heart disease
  • hypertension
  • diabetes
  • poor sleep
  • poor self-esteem
  • lethargy.

Obesity and how it may affect performance in physical activity and sport

Definition of obesity.

Obesity and how it may affect performance in physical activity and sport:

  • limits stamina/cardiovascular endurance
  • limits flexibility
  • limits agility
  • limits speed/power.

Causes ill health (physical):

  • cancer
  • heart disease/heart attacks
  • diabetes
  • high cholesterol.

Causes ill health (mental):

  • depression
  • loss of confidence.

Causes ill health (social):

  • inability to socialise
  • inability to leave home.

Somatotypes

Definitions of the following body types:

  • endomorph
  • mesomorph
  • ectomorph.

Students should be taught to identify the most suitable body type for particular sports (or positions within a sport) and justify their choice.

3.2.3.3 Energy use, diet, nutrition and hydration

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Energy use

Energy is measured in calories (Kcal) and is obtained from the food we eat.

The average adult male requires 2,500 Kcal/day and the average adult female requires 2,000 Kcal/day but this is dependent upon:

  • age
  • gender
  • height
  • energy expenditure (exercise).

Nutrition – reasons for having balanced diet

There is no single food that contains all the nutrients the body needs.

A balanced diet contains lots of different types of food to provide the suitable nutrients, vitamins and minerals required.

The reasons for a balanced diet:

  • unused energy is stored as fat, which could cause obesity (particularly saturated fat)
  • suitable energy can be available for activity
  • the body needs nutrients for energy, growth and hydration.

Nutrition – the role of carbohydrates, fat, protein and vitamins/minerals

A balanced diet contains 55–60% carbohydrate, 25–30% fat, 15–20% protein.

Carbohydrates are the main and preferred energy source for all types of exercise, of all intensities.

Fat is also an energy source. It provides more energy than carbohydrates but only at low intensity.

Protein is for growth and repair of muscle tissue.

Vitamins and minerals are for maintaining the efficient working of the body systems and general health.

Students do not need to be taught about specific vitamins and minerals.

Reasons for maintaining water balance (hydration)

Definition of dehydration.

Water balance (hydration) prevents dehydration.

Dehydration results in:

  • blood thickening (increased viscosity), which slows blood flow
  • increases in heart rate/heart has to work harder/irregular heart rate (rhythm)
  • increase in body temperature/overheat
  • slowing of reactions/increased reaction time/poorer decisions
  • muscle fatigue/cramps.

Students should be taught to understand and evaluate the consequences of dehydration to performance in different sporting activities.