Specifications that use this resource:

Summary of changes

A comparison of our new GCSE Psychology (8182) specification to our previous Psychology qualification.

Memory

What’s the same What’s different What’s new What’s gone

Encoding, storage and retrieval.

The multi-store model of memory.

The reconstructive explanation of memory.

Context.

Now includes coding, capacity and duration of memory stores.

Description and evaluation of a study to investigate the multi-store model now named as Murdock’s serial position curve study.

The reconstructive explanation of memory now called t he theory of reconstructive memory.

Description and evaluation of a study to investigate the reconstructive explanation now named as Bartlett’s War of the Ghosts study.

Different types of memory: episodic memory, semantic memory and procedural memory.

Now includes the effects of serial position.

Now includes the concept of ‘effort after meaning’.

Factors affecting the accuracy of memory, including interference, false memories (and context).

Levels of processing explanation.

Forgetting section (other than context).

Eyewitness testimony section.

Practical applications.

Perception

This is a new topic.

Development

This is a new topic.

Research methods

What’s the same What’s different What’s new What’s gone

Formulation of testable hypotheses.

Independent, dependent and extraneous variables.

Target populations, samples and sampling methods:

  • random
  • opportunity
  • systematic
  • stratified.

The experimental method (experimental designs, independent groups, repeated measures, matched pairs).

Interviews and questionnaires.

Case studies.

Observation studies (including categories of behaviour and interobserver reliability).

Correlation.

An understanding of association between two variables.

The use of standardised procedures, instructions to participants, randomisation, counterbalancing and extraneous variables (including how to control for them).

Ethical considerations.

Mean, median, mode and range.

Percentages.

Bar charts and scatter diagrams for correlation.

One Research methods section rather than two.

Students can be examined on these areas of knowledge within all other topic areas.

Now includes null hypothesis and alternative hypothesis.

Now in section named ‘Types of variable’.

Now need to know how to select samples using these methods.

The experimental method now in section with all other quantitative and qualitative research methods.

Scatter diagrams specifically for showing possible correlational relationships.

Random allocation now referred to as allocation to conditions.

Understanding principles of sampling as applied to scientific data.

Laboratory experiments and field and natural experiments all individually named in specification.

Explaining the effect of extraneous variables.

How research should be planned, taking into consideration the reliability and/or validity of:

  • sampling methods
  • experimental designs
  • quantitative and qualitative methods.

The difference between quantitative and qualitative data.

The difference between primary and secondary data.

Expressions in decimal and standard form.

Ratios, fractions and estimated results.

Use an appropriate number of significant figures.

Frequency tables diagrams and histograms.

Normal distributions.

Research in natural and experimental settings.

Interviews and questionnaires not referred to as survey methods.

Structured and unstructured not specifically stated in specification.

Closed and open questions not specifically stated in specification.

Anomalous results.

Social influence

What’s the same What’s different What’s new What’s gone

Understand the concepts of conformity, obedience, social loafing and deindividuation.

Factors affecting conformity and obedience.

Piliavin’s subway study.

Description and evaluation of a study to investigate conformity now named as Asch’s study of conformity.

Factors affecting conformity are now stated and split into social and dispositional factors.

Factors affecting obedience are now stated and split into social and dispositional factors.

Factors affecting bystander intervention are now stated and split into social and dispositional factors.

Social loafing and deindividuation now stated as social factors affecting collective behavior.

Stated social factors affecting obedience are considered as part of Milgram’s Agency theory.

Stated dispositional factors affecting obedience are considered as part of Adorno’s theory of the Authoritarian Personality (this theory was previously part of the Stereotyping, prejudice and discrimination topic).

Description and evaluation of studies of obedience, social loafing and deindividuation.

Factors affecting social loafing and deindividuation.

Description and evaluation of studies of bystander intervention other than Piliavin.

Prosocial and antisocial behaviour in crowds.

Social factors and dispositional factors (personality and morality) that affect collective behaviour.

Practical implications.

Language, thought and communication

What’s the same What’s different What’s new What’s gone

Concepts of non-verbal communication and verbal communication.

Functions of eye contact including regulating flow of conversation, signaling attraction and expressing emotion.

Body language including open and closed posture, postural echo and touch.

Personal space including cultural, status and gender differences.

Was included within the Non-verbal communication topic.

Providing feedback and pupil dilation remain relevant but are not specifically stated in the spec.

Paralinguistics.

Argyle study.

Facial expression section.

Gestures.

Description and evaluation of studies of verbal and non-verbal communication.

Individual differences.

Description and evaluation of studies of factors affecting personal space.

Practical implications.

Brain and neuropsychology

This is a new topic.