This resource is provided as guidance for teachers on the minimum content to be covered when delivering the specifications. Please note that where examples of sociologists or studies have been provided these are a guide to how you may deliver the specification.
Education 3.1.1 and 4.1.1
Education is a compulsory topic for both the AS and A-level. It is assessed on Paper 1 of the AS (7191/1) and Paper 1 of the A-level (7192/1).
|Specification||Minimum content to be covered|
|The role and functions of the education system, including its relationship to the economy and to class structure||
Functionalist and New Right explanations of the role and functions of the education system, eg in relation to social solidarity, skills teaching, meritocracy, selection and role allocation.
Durkheim, Parsons, Davis & Moore, Chubb & Moe
Marxist explanations of the role and functions of the education system, eg in relation to ideological state apparatuses, reproduction of social class inequality, legitimation of social class inequality.
Althusser, Bowles and Gintis, Willis
|Differential educational achievement of social groups by social class, gender and ethnicity in contemporary society||
Patterns and trends in differential educational achievement by social class, ethnicity and gender, eg in relation to GCSE results.
Official statistics on patterns
Different sociological explanations of social class differences in educational achievement in relation to external factors (outside the education system), eg cultural deprivation, material deprivation and cultural capital.
J.W.B. Douglas, Bernstein, Bourdieu
Different sociological explanations of gender differences in educational achievement in relation to external factors, eg changes in the family and labour market affecting women and men and the influence of feminist ideas.
Sharpe, McRobbie, Francis
Different sociological explanations of ethnic differences in educational achievement in relation to external factors, eg cultural deprivation, material deprivation and racism in wider society.
Bereiter & Engelmann, Evans, Lupton
Relationships and processes within schools, with particular reference to teacher/pupil relationships, pupil identities and subcultures, the hidden curriculum, and the organisation of teaching and learning
Different sociological explanations of social class differences in educational achievement in relation to internal factors and processes within schools, eg teacher labelling, the self-fulfilling prophecy, pupil subcultures and pupils’ class identities.
Becker, Lacey, Ball
Different sociological explanations of gender differences in educational achievement in relation to internal factors, eg the curriculum, selection and marketisation, feminisation of education, pupil subcultures and gender identities.
Kelly, Gorard, Weiner
Patterns and trends in subject choice by gender. Different sociological explanations of gender differences in subject choice, eg in relation to subject image, teaching and learning styles and primary socialisation.
Official statistics on patterns
Different sociological explanations of ethnic differences in educational achievement in relation to internal factors, eg racist labelling, the self-fulfilling prophecy, pupil subcultural responses, ethnic identities, institutional racism and the ethnocentric curriculum.
Gilborn & Youdell, Coard, Moore & Davenport
|The significance of educational policies, including policies of selection, marketisation and privatisation, and polices to achieve greater equality of opportunity or outcome, for an understanding of the structure, role, impact and experience of and access to education; the impact of globalisation on educational policy||
The impact of educational policies of selection, marketisation and privatisation, such as the tripartite system and the post-1988 education system, in relation to educational standards and class differences of outcome; the globalisation of educational policy.
Ball, Whitty, David
The impact of educational policies aimed at achieving greater equality of opportunity or outcome, eg the comprehensive system, compensatory education policies, education action zones and tuition fees.
Douglas, Keddie, Ball
Education policies in relation to gender and ethnic differences and their impact, eg GIST, WISE and multicultural education.
Francis, Sewell, Mirza
Different sociological explanations of the impact of educational policies, eg in relation to parentocracy and differences in economic and cultural capital.
Gewirtz, Gillborn & Youdell, Bartlett
Methods in context (3.1.2 and 4.1.2)
Methods in context is a compulsory topic for both AS and A-level. It is It is assessed on Paper 1 of the AS (7191/1) and Paper 1 of the A-level (7192/1).
|Students must be able to apply sociological research methods to the study of education||The application of the range of primary and secondary methods and sources of data (as covered below in AS level Research Methods and in A-level Theory and Methods) to the particular topics studied in education, with specific reference to the strengths and limitations of the different methods and sources of data in different educational contexts.|
AS research methods (3.2.1)
Research methods is a compulsory topic for AS and is assessed on Paper 2 of the AS (7191/2).
A-level theory and methods (4.1.3 and 4.3.2)
Theory and methods is a compulsory topic at A-level and assessed on Paper 1 of the A-level (7192/1) and Paper 3 of the A-level (7192/3).
Consensus, conflict, structural and social action theories
The difference between consensus and conflict theories of society, including consensus theories such as functionalism, the New Right, and conflict theories, ie Marxism and feminism; the major variants of such theories, eg scientific and humanistic Marxism; liberal, radical, Marxist etc feminism.
Marx, Gramsci, Althusser, Durkheim, Parsons, Merton
The difference between structural theories such as functionalism and Marxism, and action theories; the main types of action theory, such as social action theory, symbolic interactionism and ethnomethodology.
Weber, Mead, Blumer, Becker, Goffman, Garfinkel
The concepts of modernity and post-modernity in relation to sociological theory
The concepts of modernity and postmodernity, including variants such as late modernity.
Baudrillard, Giddens, Beck, Harvey
Modernist and postmodernist theories of contemporary society.
Baudrillard, Giddens, Beck, Harvey
The nature of science and the extent to which Sociology can be regarded as scientific
Debates about the scientific status of sociology: positivist and interpretivist views.
Durkheim, Weber, Glaser & Strauss, Atkinson
Different views of the natural sciences, eg Popper, Kuhn, realism, and implications for sociology’s scientific status.
Popper, Kuhn, Keat & Urry
The relationship between theory and methods
The relationship between theoretical perspective and preference for particular research methods and sources of data, eg positivism and quantitative data, interpretivism and qualitative data.
Durkheim, Atkinson, Jack Douglas
Debates about subjectivity, objectivity and value freedom
Concepts of objectivity, subjectivity, value freedom and ideology.
Comte, Durkheim, Marx, Weber, Becker, Gouldner
Different views of whether sociology can and should be objective or value free, eg classical sociology, value neutrality and committed sociology; relativism.
Comte, Durkheim, Marx, Weber, Becker, Gouldner
|The relationship between Sociology and social policy||
The difference between social problems and sociological problems; perspectives on social policy and on the role of sociology in relation to policy.
Worsley, Comte, Durkheim, Marx, Murray
Culture and identity (18.104.22.168 and 4.2.1)
Culture and identity is an optional topic at AS and A-level. It is assessed at AS on Paper 2 (7191/2) and at A-level on Paper 2 (7192/2).
|Different conceptions of culture, including subculture, mass culture, folk culture, high and low culture, popular culture and global culture||
The meaning of these different concepts of culture.
Bourdieu, Durkheim, The Frankfurt school
How are they used by different sociologists?
The Frankfurt school, Strinati, Storey
Sociological views, eg functionalist, Marxist, neo-Marxist, interactionist, feminist and postmodernist, on the role of culture in society.
Durkheim, Parsons, Marx, Frankfurt school, Wolf, Strinati Goffman
The socialisation process and the role of the agencies of socialisation
Different sociological perspectives on socialisation, eg functionalist, Marxist, feminist, interactionist and postmodernist.
Parsons, Marx, Oakley, Mead, Lyotard
Different sociological views on the role of different agencies of socialisation, ie primary and secondary, and their relative importance.
Durkheim, Zaretsky, Oakley
Meaning of concepts such as norms, values, role, status.
Parsons, Marx, Goffman
How individuals are socialised into the social constructs of age, disability, ethnicity, gender, nationality, sexuality and social class.
Bradley, Barnes, Gilroy, McRobbie, Hall, Bourdieu
|The self, identity and difference as both socially caused and socially constructed||
How an individual’s sense of self and identity, and also differences between social groups, develop according to structuralist views, eg functionalist, feminist and Marxist.
Parsons, Marx, Oakley
How an individual’s sense of self and identity, and also differences between social groups, develop according to social action views, eg interactionist, and postmodernist views; including concepts such as labelling, master status and stereotype. How an individual’s identity is shaped by interaction with others.
Goffman, Mead, Becker, Cooley
|The relationship of identity to age, disability, ethnicity, gender, nationality, sexuality and social class in contemporary society||
How an individual’s experiences and sense of identity are shaped by these factors.
Bradley, Barnes, Gilroy, McRobbie, Hall, Bourdieu
Their relative importance and the extent to which these factors are changing in contemporary society.
Bradley, Barnes, Gilroy, McRobbie, Hall, Bourdieu
The relationship of identity to production, consumption and globalisation
How identity is shaped by traditional structures such as the relationship an individual has to work (including social class).
Roberts, Bourdieu, Parker
How identity is shaped by consumption choices, including leisure, and how social identity affects consumption/lifestyle/leisure choices.
Clarke and Critcher, Bauman, Rojek
To what extent can individuals choose and shape their social identity independent of wider social constructs.
Bauman and May, Deem, Strinati
The effect of globalisation on identity.
Ritzer, Hall, Anderson
Families and households (22.214.171.124 and 4.2.2)
Families and households is an optional topic at AS and A-level. It is assessed at AS on Paper 2 (7191/2) and at A-level on Paper 2 (7192/2).
The relationship of the family to the social structure and social change, with particular reference to the economy and to state policies
Different sociological views, eg functionalist, feminist, Marxist, New Right and postmodernist, on the role of the family and its relationship to wider social structures such as the economy.
Parsons, Murdock, Zaretsky, Oakley
The impact of government legislation, eg divorce, adoption and same sex marriage, and policies, eg education, housing and welfare, on the family.
Donzelot, Leonard, Murray
Changing patterns of marriage, cohabitation, separation, divorce, childbearing and the life course, including the sociology of personal life, and the diversity of contemporary family and household structures
An understanding of the trends in contemporary family and household structures, eg symmetrical family, beanpole families, matrifocal families, serial monogamy, lone-parent families, house husbands, living apart together, same sex couples etc.
Chester, Giddens, Rapoports
Different sociological explanations for the reasons and significance of these trends.
Weeks, Chester, Stacey
Including the significance of individual choice in personal relationships and the significance of relationships beyond the traditional family structures.
May, Smart, Stacey
Gender roles, domestic labour and power relationships within the family in contemporary society
Different sociological arguments and evidence on this, including an understanding of the extent of changes and also diversity of experiences.
Dunscombe and Marsden, Pahl, Dunne
Different aspects of relationships, eg domestic labour, childcare, domestic violence, finance, dual burden triple shift etc.
Pahl and Vogler, Dobash and Dobash, Gershuny
|The nature of childhood, and changes in the status of children in the family and society||
How childhood is socially constructed.
Pilcher, Aries, Wagg
Different sociological views on the nature and experience of childhood.
Postman, Palmer, Womack
How childhood is experienced differently across gender, ethnicity and social class.
McRobbie and Garber, Brannen, Howard
Cross cultural differences and how the experience of childhood has changed historically.
Aries, Punch, Donzelot
Demographic trends in the United Kingdom since 1900: birth rates, death rates, family size, life expectancy, ageing population, and migration and globalisation
Sociological debates about the nature, causes and significance of these changes.
McKeown, Hirsch, Townsend
How these changes impact on family and households, and also wider society, including concepts such as net migration, infant mortality rate and fertility rate.
The Griffiths report, Picher, Blaikie
Health (126.96.36.199 and 4.2.3)
Health is an optional topic at AS and A-level. It is assessed at AS on Paper 2 (7191/2) and at A-level on Paper 2 (7192/2).
|The social construction of health, illness, disability and the body, and models of health and illness||
Includes concepts such as the biomedical model, medicalisation, iatrogenesis, social models and impairment.
Parsons, Illich, Oliver
Social and cultural definitions of health, illness, disability and the body.
Blaxter, Shakespeare, Oakley
Strengths and limitations of these approaches.
Giddens, McKeown, Goffman
The unequal social distribution of health chances in the United Kingdom by social class, gender, ethnicity and region
Differences in patterns of health chances by social class, gender, ethnicity and region.
ONS, The Acheson report, The Marmot Review
Reasons why some groups have higher/lower rates of illness than others, including cultural, behavioural and material factors.
Shaw et al, Graham, Wilkinson and Marmot
Inequalities in the provision of, and access to, health care in contemporary society
The nature, including inequalities, of health care in contemporary society.
Mencap, Age UK, Tudor-Hart
The patterns of inequalities in access to that health care in relation to age, disability, ethnicity, gender, region and social class.
Dixon et al, Wilkins et al, Latif
Explanations for inequalities in access to that health care in relation to age, disability, ethnicity, gender, region and social class.
Checkland et al, Calnan, Alford
|The nature and social distribution of mental illness||
Mental illness as a social construction.
Szarz, Scheff, Goffman
Sociological views on the nature and causes of the social distribution of mental illness by social class, gender and ethnicity.
Link and Phelan, Brown et al, Nazroo
Biomedical, structural and interactionist approaches.
Foucault, Laing, Goffman
|The role of medicine, the health professions and the globalised health industry||
Sociological views on the power of the medical profession, eg functionalist, feminist, interactionist, Marxist, Weberian and postmodernist.
Parsons, Weber, Navarro
Changes in the role of medicine and the power of the medical profession in contemporary society.
Giddens, Nettleton, Witz
The role of the global health industry, eg the role of ‘big pharma’.
Williams et al, Law, Goldacre
Work, poverty and welfare (188.8.131.52 and 4.2.4)
Work, poverty and welfare is an optional topic at AS and A-level. It is assessed at AS on Paper 2 (7191/2) and at A-level on Paper 2 (7192/2).
|The nature, existence and persistence of poverty in contemporary society||
Definitions and measurements of poverty including absolute, relative, subjective poverty and social exclusion.
Townsend, Mack and Lansley, Byrne, The Rowntree Foundation
Structural, individual and cultural explanations, including feminist, functionalist, Marxist, New Right, Social Democratic and Weberian, on the causes of poverty and why it continues to exist in contemporary society.
Marsland, Townsend, Miliband
The distribution of poverty, wealth and income between different social groups
The pattern of the distribution of poverty, wealth and income across social class, gender, ethnicity, age, disability and family structure.
Lister, Flaherty et al, Palmer
Why some groups are more/less likely to experience poverty.
Lister, Flaherty et al, Alcock
Different sociological explanations for these patterns and reasons for change in distribution, eg the widening gap between rich and poor.
Murray, Weber, Townsend
|Responses and solutions to poverty by the state and by private, voluntary and informal welfare providers in contemporary society||
Government policies, eg means-tested versus universal benefits.
Giddens, Marsland, Page
Different sociological views on the nature, extent and effectiveness of state, private, voluntary and informal providers.
Pierson, Bartholomew, Townsend
|Organisation and control of the labour process, including the division of labour, the role of technology, skill and de-skilling||
Sociological debates about the nature and underlying reasons for the organisation and control of the labour process, including the division of labour.
Braverman, Marx, Durkheim
The nature, extent and significance of technology and its impact on the labour process including organisation, control and levels of skill.
Braverman, Zuboff, Piore
|The significance of work and worklessness for people’s lives and life chances, including the effects of globalisation||
Sociological views on the role that work plays in people’s lives not only in terms of its effect on life chances but also in terms of identity, sense of purpose, fulfilment, alienation, work satisfaction etc.
Grint, Marx, Blauner
The impact of worklessness, including being unemployed, underemployed, retired, unable to work.
Fagin and Little, Cumming and Henry, Hockey and James
The impact of globalisation on these issues.
Ritzer, Klein, Marx
Beliefs in society (4.2.5)
Beliefs in society is an optional topic at A-level and is assessed on Paper 2 (7192/2).
Ideology, science and religion, including both Christian and non-Christian religious traditions
Science as a social construct. Issues in defining religion.
Durkheim, Giddens, Berger
Religion and science as belief systems and ideological influences.
Bainbridge, Weber, Berger
Different theoretical views on the role and function of religion, eg functionalist, Marxist (including neo-Marxist), feminist and postmodernist.
Durkheim, Parsons, Marx, El Sadaawi
The relationship between social change and social stability, and religious beliefs, practices and organisations
Sociological views on religion as a conservative force and, as a force for social change, for stability or conflict.
Durkheim, Marx, Weber
The impact of social change on religious belief, practices and organisations.
Wilson, Bruce, Wallis
Religious organisations, including cults, sects, denominations, churches and New Age movements, and their relationship to religious and spiritual belief and practice
Characteristics of different types of religious organisation.
Troeltsch, Wallis, Wilson
Explanations for growth or decline of different forms of religious organisation.
Wallis, Weber, Barker
The relationship between different social groups and religious/spiritual organisations and movements, beliefs and practices
Patterns of religiosity among different social groups, such as social class, ethnicity, gender and age.
Weber, El Sadaawi, Davies
Explanations for changes in these patterns.
Modood et al, Woodhead, Bruce
The significance of religion and religiosity in the contemporary world, including the nature and extent of secularisation in a global context, and globalisation and the spread of religions
Defining and measuring secularisation. The extent of belief and practice.
Wilson, Glock and Stark, Davie
Competing explanations and evidence for secularisation in terms of belief, practice and organisations.
Bruce, Wilson, Weber
Global context of debate including fundamentalism and the growth of religion.
Berger, Davie, Norris and Inglehart
Global development (4.2.6)
Global development is an optional topic at A-level and is assessed on Paper 2 (7192/2).
|Development, underdevelopment and global inequality||
Different perspectives on the nature, extent and causes of development, underdevelopment and global inequality, including modernisation, dependency, Marxist, neo-liberal, environmentalist and post-development perspectives.
Rostow, Frank, Escobar
Competing definitions and measurements of development, underdevelopment and global inequality.
Rostow, Frank, Collier
|Globalisation and its influence on the cultural, political and economic relationships between societies||
Sociological debates about the nature, extent, causes and significance of these different aspects of globalisation.
Wallerstein, Cohen and Kennedy, Held and McGrew
|The role of transnational corporations (TNCs), non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and international agencies in local and global strategies for development||
Sociological debates about the role and effectiveness of these organisations in the development process. Debates about strategies.
Hoogvelt, Moyo, Ellwood
Klein, Sklair, Froebel
Local and national NGOs.
Chambers, Edwards and Hulme, Bebbington et al
International agencies such as the World Bank, IMF, EU, UN, WTO and their associate organisations.
Foster, Stiglitz, Buira
|Development in relation to aid and trade, industrialisation, urbanisation, the environment, and war and conflict||
Sociological debates about the role of aid, trade, industrialisation and urbanisation in the development process.
Hayter, Sachs, Cohen and Kennedy
The relationship between development and the environment, including debates about sustainable development, environmental change and green growth.
Kingsbury, Ellwood, Brundtland Commission
Debates about the nature and causes of wars and conflict, and the effects of war and conflict on development.
Kaldor, Duffield, Collier
|Employment, education, health, demographic change and gender as aspects of development||
The changing nature of employment as a result of development.
Leonard, Elson and Pearson, Rostow
The role of education in development, including different education systems.
Lerner, Sen, UNESCO Education for All Global Monitoring Report 2010
Health care systems and the nature of health and illness in developing countries.
Cohen and Kennedy, WHO 2006 report, MacDonald
Trends, causes and significance for development of demographic change, including global population growth.
Malthus, Boserup, Adamson
The significance of gender in relation to development.
Leonard, Pearson, Van der Gaag
The media (4.2.7)
The media is an optional topic at A-level and is assessed on Paper 2 (7192/2).
The new media and their significance for an understanding of the role of the media in contemporary society
Competing views on the nature and significance of digital media in contemporary society.
Boyle, Curran and Seaton, Cornford and Robbins
The growth and diversity of new media; control and use of new media.
Boyle, Cornford and Robbins, Keen
|The relationship between ownership and control of the media||
Sociological views, including Marxist and postmodernist pluralist, on the ownership and control of the media.
The Frankfurt school, Whale, Levene, Baudrillard
The pattern of ownership.
Curran, GUMG, Bagdikian
The extent to which owners, as opposed to other groups, control the content.
GUMG, Curran, Miliband
|The media, globalisation and popular culture||
Definitions of culture and the nature, causes and significance of global culture and global media on contemporary society.
Strinati, Ritzer, Lechner and Boli
The effects of globalisation on popular culture and the role of the media, including debates about cultural imperialism.
Flew, Fenton, Storey
|The processes of selection and presentation of the content of the news||
Sociological views on the social construction of news, including practical, technological, (including the new media), organisational and ideological factors.
Jones, Galtung and Ruge, Davies
The influence of audience, advertisers, the new media, media professionals and government on the content of news.
The Leveson Enquiry, GUMG, Jewkes
Media representations of age, social class, ethnicity, gender, sexuality and disability
The nature, causes, trends and significance of these representations.
Wayne, Newman, Van Djik, Wolf, Batchelor et al, Barnes
Changes in the representations of different groups.
Connell, Hall, McRobbie
|The relationship between the media, their content and presentation, and audiences||
Different theories concerning the effects of the media on their audience.
Morley, Klapper, Blumer and McQuail, GUMG
Methodological issues of researching media effects, including violent content.
Gauntlett, GUMG, Morrison, Bandura et al
Stratification and differentiation (4.2.8)
Stratification and differentiation is an optional topic at A-level and is assessed on Paper 2 (7192/2).
Stratification and differentiation by social class, gender, ethnicity and age
Functionalist theories of stratification, eg meritocracy and role allocation.
Durkheim, Davis & Moore, Parsons
Marxist theories of stratification, eg relationship to the means of production, alienation, the role of state apparatuses and class consciousness.
Marx, Engels, Wright
Weberian theories of stratification, eg life chances and the interplay of class, status and party/power.
Feminist theories of stratification, eg patriarchy and different branches of feminism.
Millett, Walby, Firestone, Oakley, Mirza
Postmodernist theories of stratification, eg consumerism as differentiation and subjective aspects of differentiation.
Pakulski & Waters, Grusky, Strinati
|Dimensions of inequality: class, status and power; differences in life-chances by social class, gender, ethnicity, age and disability||
Explanations of and changes to differences in life chances by social class, eg the upper class, wealth, income, the middle class, the working class, the underclass and differences in health, education and work chances.
Westergaard & Resler, Weber, Marx, Lockwood
Explanations of and changes to differences in life chances by gender, eg the expressive role, gender socialisation, the reserve army of labour and differences in health, education and work chances.
Barron & Norris, Swain, Sharpe
Explanations of and changes to differences in life chances by ethnicity, eg prejudice, discrimination, institutional racism and differences in health, education and work chances.
Rex & Tomlinson, Miles, Modood
Explanations of and changes to differences in life chances by age, eg the impact of an ageing population, the elderly, the young and differences in health, education and work chances.
Aries, Postman, Parsons
Explanations of and changes to differences in life chances by disability, eg social exclusion, poverty and differences in health, education and work chances.
Finkelstein, Shakespeare, Oliver
|The problems of defining and measuring social class; occupation, gender and social class||
Sociological approaches to the measurement of social class, eg neo-Marxist.
The use of occupation, education and social status in measuring social class.
Registrar General’s Scale, National Statistics Socio-Economic Classification
The problems of defining and measuring social class, eg objective and subjective views of class and occupation, gender and social class.
Giddens, Arber, Gale & Gilbert, Southerton
|Changes in structures of inequality, including globalisation and the transnational capitalist class, and the implications of these changes||
Changes in structures of inequality and the implications of these changes.
Goldthorpe et al, Savage et al, Pakulski & Waters
Changes to the class structure of the UK.
Marshall et al, Murray, Giddens, Westergaard & Resler
The impact of the global economy and the movement of capital, migration and immigration and its impact on stratification.
|The nature, extent and significance of patterns of social mobility||
The nature, extent and significance of patterns of social mobility.
Dorling et al, Goldthorpe
Types of social mobility.
Patterns, changes and impacts of social mobility in the UK.
Goldthorpe, Payne, Glass, Sutton Trust
Measurement and studies of social mobility, problems of measuring social mobility and patterns and impacts of social mobility in the UK.
Goldthorpe, Heath & Britten, Stanworth, Saunders, Platt
Crime and deviance (4.3.1)
Crime and deviance is a compulsory topic at A-level and is assessed on Paper 3 of the A-level (7192/3).
|Crime, deviance, social order and social control||
Functionalist explanations of crime, deviance, social order and social control, eg positive functions of crime, adaptations to strain, types of subculture, differential association.
Durkheim, Merton, A.K.Cohen, Cloward and Ohlin
Marxist and neo-Marxist explanations of crime, deviance, social order and social control, eg criminogenic capitalism, law making and critical criminology.
Marx, Chambliss, Snider, Taylor, Walton & Young
Labelling theory of crime, deviance, social order and social control, eg the social construction of crime, the effects of labelling and deviance amplification.
Becker, Cicourel, Lemert, S.Cohen, Braithwaite
Right realist explanations of crime, deviance, social order and social control, eg the causes of crime and solutions to crime.
Wilson, Murray, Wilson & Kelling, Felson
Left realist explanations of crime, deviance, social order and social control, eg relative deprivation, subcultures and marginalisation.
Young, Lea & Young
|The social distribution of crime and deviance by ethnicity, gender and social class, including recent patterns and trends in crime||
The social distribution of crime and deviance by ethnicity, including recent patterns and trends and different explanations for these, eg ethnicity and criminality, racism and the criminal justice system and victimisation.
Bowling and Phillips, Gilroy, Hall
The social distribution of crime and deviance by gender, including recent patterns and trends and different explanations for these, eg feminism, the chivalry thesis, sex role theory, social control and liberation thesis.
Pollak, Heidensohn, Carlen
The social distribution of crime and deviance by social class, including recent patterns and trends and different explanations for these, eg selective law enforcement and white-collar crime.
Marx, Lea & Young, Pearce, Merton, Miller
|Globalisation and crime in contemporary society; the media and crime; green crime; human rights and state crimes||
Globalisation and crime in contemporary society, eg transnational organised crime, global criminal organisations, global capitalism and crimes of the powerful.
Castells, Held, Taylor, Hobbs & Dunningham, Glenny
The media and crime, eg media representations of crime, the media as a cause of crime and moral panics.
S.Cohen, Young, Jewkes, McRobbie & Thornton
Green crime, eg types of green crime and green criminology.
South, Beck, White
Human rights and state crimes, eg war, genocide and torture, and human rights abuses.
McLaughlin, H & J Schwendinger
|Crime control, surveillance, prevention and punishment, victims, and the role of the criminal justice system and other agencies||
Crime control, surveillance, prevention and punishment, eg crime prevention strategies, and sociological perspectives on punishment.
Durkheim, Rusche & Kirchheimer, Felson, Chaiken, Wilson & Kelling
Patterns of victimisation and explanations for these, eg positivist and critical victimology.
Christie, Miers, Mawby & Walklate, Tombs & Whyte
The role of the criminal justice system and other agencies, eg the role of police, courts and prisons.
Foucault, Garland, S.Cohen