Specifications that use this resource:

Teaching guide

This resource is provided as guidance for teachers on the minimum content to be covered when delivering the specifications. Please note that where examples of sociologists or studies have been provided these are a guide to how you may deliver the specification.

Education 3.1.1 and 4.1.1

Education is a compulsory topic for both the AS and A-level. It is assessed on Paper 1 of the AS (7191/1) and Paper 1 of the A-level (7192/1).

Specification Minimum content to be covered
The role and functions of the education system, including its relationship to the economy and to class structure

Functionalist and New Right explanations of the role and functions of the education system, eg in relation to social solidarity, skills teaching, meritocracy, selection and role allocation.

Durkheim, Parsons, Davis & Moore, Chubb & Moe

Marxist explanations of the role and functions of the education system, eg in relation to ideological state apparatuses, reproduction of social class inequality, legitimation of social class inequality.

Althusser, Bowles and Gintis, Willis

Differential educational achievement of social groups by social class, gender and ethnicity in contemporary society

Patterns and trends in differential educational achievement by social class, ethnicity and gender, eg in relation to GCSE results.

Official statistics on patterns

Different sociological explanations of social class differences in educational achievement in relation to external factors (outside the education system), eg cultural deprivation, material deprivation and cultural capital.

J.W.B. Douglas, Bernstein, Bourdieu

Different sociological explanations of gender differences in educational achievement in relation to external factors, eg changes in the family and labour market affecting women and men and the influence of feminist ideas.

Sharpe, McRobbie, Francis

Different sociological explanations of ethnic differences in educational achievement in relation to external factors, eg cultural deprivation, material deprivation and racism in wider society.

Bereiter & Engelmann, Evans, Lupton

Relationships and processes within schools, with particular reference to teacher/pupil relationships, pupil identities and subcultures, the hidden curriculum, and the organisation of teaching and learning

Different sociological explanations of social class differences in educational achievement in relation to internal factors and processes within schools, eg teacher labelling, the self-fulfilling prophecy, pupil subcultures and pupils’ class identities.

Becker, Lacey, Ball

Different sociological explanations of gender differences in educational achievement in relation to internal factors, eg the curriculum, selection and marketisation, feminisation of education, pupil subcultures and gender identities.

Kelly, Gorard, Weiner

Patterns and trends in subject choice by gender. Different sociological explanations of gender differences in subject choice, eg in relation to subject image, teaching and learning styles and primary socialisation.

Official statistics on patterns

Different sociological explanations of ethnic differences in educational achievement in relation to internal factors, eg racist labelling, the self-fulfilling prophecy, pupil subcultural responses, ethnic identities, institutional racism and the ethnocentric curriculum.

Gilborn & Youdell, Coard, Moore & Davenport

The significance of educational policies, including policies of selection, marketisation and privatisation, and polices to achieve greater equality of opportunity or outcome, for an understanding of the structure, role, impact and experience of and access to education; the impact of globalisation on educational policy

The impact of educational policies of selection, marketisation and privatisation, such as the tripartite system and the post-1988 education system, in relation to educational standards and class differences of outcome; the globalisation of educational policy.

Ball, Whitty, David

The impact of educational policies aimed at achieving greater equality of opportunity or outcome, eg the comprehensive system, compensatory education policies, education action zones and tuition fees.

Douglas, Keddie, Ball

Education policies in relation to gender and ethnic differences and their impact, eg GIST, WISE and multicultural education.

Francis, Sewell, Mirza

Different sociological explanations of the impact of educational policies, eg in relation to parentocracy and differences in economic and cultural capital.

Gewirtz, Gillborn & Youdell, Bartlett

Methods in context (3.1.2 and 4.1.2)

Methods in context is a compulsory topic for both AS and A-level. It is It is assessed on Paper 1 of the AS (7191/1) and Paper 1 of the A-level (7192/1).

Specification Content
Students must be able to apply sociological research methods to the study of education The application of the range of primary and secondary methods and sources of data (as covered below in AS level Research Methods and in A-level Theory and Methods) to the particular topics studied in education, with specific reference to the strengths and limitations of the different methods and sources of data in different educational contexts.

AS research methods (3.2.1)

Research methods is a compulsory topic for AS and is assessed on Paper 2 of the AS (7191/2).

Specification Content
  • Quantitative and qualitative methods of research; research design
  • Sources of data, including questionnaires, interviews, participant and non-participant observation, experiments, documents and official statistics
  • The distinction between primary and secondary data, and between quantitative and qualitative data
  • The relationship between positivism, interpretivism and sociological methods; the nature of ‘social facts’
  • The theoretical, practical and ethical considerations influencing choice of topic, choice of method(s) and the conduct of research
  • Types of research method and data sources: the differences between quantitative and qualitative data, and between primary and secondary sources of data; the strengths and limitations of each of these.
  • Primary methods of data collection: questionnaires, interviews, observation and experiments; the main variants of each, eg structured and unstructured interviews, participant and non-participant observation, laboratory and field experiments.
  • Secondary sources of data: documents, official statistics; different types of document, eg personal, public and historical; different sources of official statistics.
  • Research design, eg in relation to pilot studies and sampling techniques; main stages of the research process in relation to these methods.
  • Practical issues affecting choice of methods and sources, eg time, cost, access and researcher’s characteristics; strengths and limitations of different methods and sources in relation to these issues.
  • Ethical issues affecting choice of methods and sources, eg informed consent, deceit and vulnerable groups; strengths and limitations of different methods and sources in relation to these issues.
  • Theoretical issues affecting choice of methods and sources, eg reliability, validity, representativeness, positivism, interpretivism; strengths and limitations of different methods and sources in relation to these issues.
  • Practical, ethical and theoretical factors influencing choice of research topic, eg personal experience and policy concerns.

A-level theory and methods (4.1.3 and 4.3.2)

Theory and methods is a compulsory topic at A-level and assessed on Paper 1 of the A-level (7192/1) and Paper 3 of the A-level (7192/3).

Specification Content
  • Quantitative and qualitative methods of research; research design
  • Sources of data, including questionnaires, interviews, participant and non-participant observation, experiments, documents and official statistics
  • The distinction between primary and secondary data, and between quantitative and qualitative data
  • The relationship between positivism, interpretivism and sociological methods; the nature of ‘social facts’
  • The theoretical, practical and ethical considerations influencing choice of topic, choice of method(s) and the conduct of research
  • Types of research method and data sources: the differences between quantitative and qualitative data, and between primary and secondary sources of data; the strengths and limitations of each of these.
  • Primary methods of data collection: questionnaires, interviews, observation and experiments; the main variants of each, eg structured and unstructured interviews, participant and non-participant observation, laboratory and field experiments.
  • Secondary sources of data: documents, official statistics; different types of document, eg personal, public and historical; different sources of official statistics.
  • Research design, eg in relation to pilot studies and sampling techniques; main stages of the research process in relation to these methods.
  • Practical issues affecting choice of methods and sources, eg time, cost, access and researcher’s characteristics; strengths and limitations of different methods and sources in relation to these issues.
  • Ethical issues affecting choice of methods and sources, eg informed consent, deceit and vulnerable groups; strengths and limitations of different methods and sources in relation to these issues.
  • Theoretical issues affecting choice of methods and sources, eg reliability, validity, representativeness, positivism, interpretivism; strengths and limitations of different methods and sources in relation to these issues.
  • Practical, ethical and theoretical factors influencing choice of research topic, eg personal experience and policy concerns.

Consensus, conflict, structural and social action theories

The difference between consensus and conflict theories of society, including consensus theories such as functionalism, the New Right, and conflict theories, ie Marxism and feminism; the major variants of such theories, eg scientific and humanistic Marxism; liberal, radical, Marxist etc feminism.

Marx, Gramsci, Althusser, Durkheim, Parsons, Merton

The difference between structural theories such as functionalism and Marxism, and action theories; the main types of action theory, such as social action theory, symbolic interactionism and ethnomethodology.

Weber, Mead, Blumer, Becker, Goffman, Garfinkel

The concepts of modernity and post-modernity in relation to sociological theory

The concepts of modernity and postmodernity, including variants such as late modernity.

Baudrillard, Giddens, Beck, Harvey

Modernist and postmodernist theories of contemporary society.

Baudrillard, Giddens, Beck, Harvey

The nature of science and the extent to which Sociology can be regarded as scientific

Debates about the scientific status of sociology: positivist and interpretivist views.

Durkheim, Weber, Glaser & Strauss, Atkinson

Different views of the natural sciences, eg Popper, Kuhn, realism, and implications for sociology’s scientific status.

Popper, Kuhn, Keat & Urry

The relationship between theory and methods

The relationship between theoretical perspective and preference for particular research methods and sources of data, eg positivism and quantitative data, interpretivism and qualitative data.

Durkheim, Atkinson, Jack Douglas

Debates about subjectivity, objectivity and value freedom

Concepts of objectivity, subjectivity, value freedom and ideology.

Comte, Durkheim, Marx, Weber, Becker, Gouldner

Different views of whether sociology can and should be objective or value free, eg classical sociology, value neutrality and committed sociology; relativism.

Comte, Durkheim, Marx, Weber, Becker, Gouldner

The relationship between Sociology and social policy

The difference between social problems and sociological problems; perspectives on social policy and on the role of sociology in relation to policy.

Worsley, Comte, Durkheim, Marx, Murray

Culture and identity (3.2.2.1 and 4.2.1)

Culture and identity is an optional topic at AS and A-level. It is assessed at AS on Paper 2 (7191/2) and at A-level on Paper 2 (7192/2).

Specification Content
Different conceptions of culture, including subculture, mass culture, folk culture, high and low culture, popular culture and global culture

The meaning of these different concepts of culture.

Bourdieu, Durkheim, The Frankfurt school

How are they used by different sociologists?

The Frankfurt school, Strinati, Storey

Sociological views, eg functionalist, Marxist, neo-Marxist, interactionist, feminist and postmodernist, on the role of culture in society.

Durkheim, Parsons, Marx, Frankfurt school, Wolf, Strinati Goffman

The socialisation process and the role of the agencies of socialisation

Different sociological perspectives on socialisation, eg functionalist, Marxist, feminist, interactionist and postmodernist.

Parsons, Marx, Oakley, Mead, Lyotard

Different sociological views on the role of different agencies of socialisation, ie primary and secondary, and their relative importance.

Durkheim, Zaretsky, Oakley

Meaning of concepts such as norms, values, role, status.

Parsons, Marx, Goffman

How individuals are socialised into the social constructs of age, disability, ethnicity, gender, nationality, sexuality and social class.

Bradley, Barnes, Gilroy, McRobbie, Hall, Bourdieu

The self, identity and difference as both socially caused and socially constructed

How an individual’s sense of self and identity, and also differences between social groups, develop according to structuralist views, eg functionalist, feminist and Marxist.

Parsons, Marx, Oakley

How an individual’s sense of self and identity, and also differences between social groups, develop according to social action views, eg interactionist, and postmodernist views; including concepts such as labelling, master status and stereotype. How an individual’s identity is shaped by interaction with others.

Goffman, Mead, Becker, Cooley

The relationship of identity to age, disability, ethnicity, gender, nationality, sexuality and social class in contemporary society

How an individual’s experiences and sense of identity are shaped by these factors.

Bradley, Barnes, Gilroy, McRobbie, Hall, Bourdieu

Their relative importance and the extent to which these factors are changing in contemporary society.

Bradley, Barnes, Gilroy, McRobbie, Hall, Bourdieu

The relationship of identity to production, consumption and globalisation

How identity is shaped by traditional structures such as the relationship an individual has to work (including social class).

Roberts, Bourdieu, Parker

How identity is shaped by consumption choices, including leisure, and how social identity affects consumption/lifestyle/leisure choices.

Clarke and Critcher, Bauman, Rojek

To what extent can individuals choose and shape their social identity independent of wider social constructs.

Bauman and May, Deem, Strinati

The effect of globalisation on identity.

Ritzer, Hall, Anderson

Families and households (3.2.2.2 and 4.2.2)

Families and households is an optional topic at AS and A-level. It is assessed at AS on Paper 2 (7191/2) and at A-level on Paper 2 (7192/2).

Specification Content

The relationship of the family to the social structure and social change, with particular reference to the economy and to state policies

Different sociological views, eg functionalist, feminist, Marxist, New Right and postmodernist, on the role of the family and its relationship to wider social structures such as the economy.

Parsons, Murdock, Zaretsky, Oakley

The impact of government legislation, eg divorce, adoption and same sex marriage, and policies, eg education, housing and welfare, on the family.

Donzelot, Leonard, Murray

Changing patterns of marriage, cohabitation, separation, divorce, childbearing and the life course, including the sociology of personal life, and the diversity of contemporary family and household structures

An understanding of the trends in contemporary family and household structures, eg symmetrical family, beanpole families, matrifocal families, serial monogamy, lone-parent families, house husbands, living apart together, same sex couples etc.

Chester, Giddens, Rapoports

Different sociological explanations for the reasons and significance of these trends.

Weeks, Chester, Stacey

Including the significance of individual choice in personal relationships and the significance of relationships beyond the traditional family structures.

May, Smart, Stacey

Gender roles, domestic labour and power relationships within the family in contemporary society

Different sociological arguments and evidence on this, including an understanding of the extent of changes and also diversity of experiences.

Dunscombe and Marsden, Pahl, Dunne

Different aspects of relationships, eg domestic labour, childcare, domestic violence, finance, dual burden triple shift etc.

Pahl and Vogler, Dobash and Dobash, Gershuny

The nature of childhood, and changes in the status of children in the family and society

How childhood is socially constructed.

Pilcher, Aries, Wagg

Different sociological views on the nature and experience of childhood.

Postman, Palmer, Womack

How childhood is experienced differently across gender, ethnicity and social class.

McRobbie and Garber, Brannen, Howard

Cross cultural differences and how the experience of childhood has changed historically.

Aries, Punch, Donzelot

Demographic trends in the United Kingdom since 1900: birth rates, death rates, family size, life expectancy, ageing population, and migration and globalisation

Sociological debates about the nature, causes and significance of these changes.

McKeown, Hirsch, Townsend

How these changes impact on family and households, and also wider society, including concepts such as net migration, infant mortality rate and fertility rate.

The Griffiths report, Picher, Blaikie

Health (3.2.2.3 and 4.2.3)

Health is an optional topic at AS and A-level. It is assessed at AS on Paper 2 (7191/2) and at A-level on Paper 2 (7192/2).

Specification Content
The social construction of health, illness, disability and the body, and models of health and illness

Includes concepts such as the biomedical model, medicalisation, iatrogenesis, social models and impairment.

Parsons, Illich, Oliver

Social and cultural definitions of health, illness, disability and the body.

Blaxter, Shakespeare, Oakley

Strengths and limitations of these approaches.

Giddens, McKeown, Goffman

The unequal social distribution of health chances in the United Kingdom by social class, gender, ethnicity and region

Differences in patterns of health chances by social class, gender, ethnicity and region.

ONS, The Acheson report, The Marmot Review

Reasons why some groups have higher/lower rates of illness than others, including cultural, behavioural and material factors.

Shaw et al, Graham, Wilkinson and Marmot

Inequalities in the provision of, and access to, health care in contemporary society

The nature, including inequalities, of health care in contemporary society.

Mencap, Age UK, Tudor-Hart

The patterns of inequalities in access to that health care in relation to age, disability, ethnicity, gender, region and social class.

Dixon et al, Wilkins et al, Latif

Explanations for inequalities in access to that health care in relation to age, disability, ethnicity, gender, region and social class.

Checkland et al, Calnan, Alford

The nature and social distribution of mental illness

Mental illness as a social construction.

Szarz, Scheff, Goffman

Sociological views on the nature and causes of the social distribution of mental illness by social class, gender and ethnicity.

Link and Phelan, Brown et al, Nazroo

Biomedical, structural and interactionist approaches.

Foucault, Laing, Goffman

The role of medicine, the health professions and the globalised health industry

Sociological views on the power of the medical profession, eg functionalist, feminist, interactionist, Marxist, Weberian and postmodernist.

Parsons, Weber, Navarro

Changes in the role of medicine and the power of the medical profession in contemporary society.

Giddens, Nettleton, Witz

The role of the global health industry, eg the role of ‘big pharma’.

Williams et al, Law, Goldacre

Work, poverty and welfare (3.2.2.4 and 4.2.4)

Work, poverty and welfare is an optional topic at AS and A-level. It is assessed at AS on Paper 2 (7191/2) and at A-level on Paper 2 (7192/2).

Specification Content
The nature, existence and persistence of poverty in contemporary society

Definitions and measurements of poverty including absolute, relative, subjective poverty and social exclusion.

Townsend, Mack and Lansley, Byrne, The Rowntree Foundation

Structural, individual and cultural explanations, including feminist, functionalist, Marxist, New Right, Social Democratic and Weberian, on the causes of poverty and why it continues to exist in contemporary society.

Marsland, Townsend, Miliband

The distribution of poverty, wealth and income between different social groups

The pattern of the distribution of poverty, wealth and income across social class, gender, ethnicity, age, disability and family structure.

Lister, Flaherty et al, Palmer

Why some groups are more/less likely to experience poverty.

Lister, Flaherty et al, Alcock

Different sociological explanations for these patterns and reasons for change in distribution, eg the widening gap between rich and poor.

Murray, Weber, Townsend

Responses and solutions to poverty by the state and by private, voluntary and informal welfare providers in contemporary society

Government policies, eg means-tested versus universal benefits.

Giddens, Marsland, Page

Different sociological views on the nature, extent and effectiveness of state, private, voluntary and informal providers.

Pierson, Bartholomew, Townsend

Organisation and control of the labour process, including the division of labour, the role of technology, skill and de-skilling

Sociological debates about the nature and underlying reasons for the organisation and control of the labour process, including the division of labour.

Braverman, Marx, Durkheim

The nature, extent and significance of technology and its impact on the labour process including organisation, control and levels of skill.

Braverman, Zuboff, Piore

The significance of work and worklessness for people’s lives and life chances, including the effects of globalisation

Sociological views on the role that work plays in people’s lives not only in terms of its effect on life chances but also in terms of identity, sense of purpose, fulfilment, alienation, work satisfaction etc.

Grint, Marx, Blauner

The impact of worklessness, including being unemployed, underemployed, retired, unable to work.

Fagin and Little, Cumming and Henry, Hockey and James

The impact of globalisation on these issues.

Ritzer, Klein, Marx

Beliefs in society (4.2.5)

Beliefs in society is an optional topic at A-level and is assessed on Paper 2 (7192/2).

Specification Content

Ideology, science and religion, including both Christian and non-Christian religious traditions

Science as a social construct. Issues in defining religion.

Durkheim, Giddens, Berger

Religion and science as belief systems and ideological influences.

Bainbridge, Weber, Berger

Different theoretical views on the role and function of religion, eg functionalist, Marxist (including neo-Marxist), feminist and postmodernist.

Durkheim, Parsons, Marx, El Sadaawi

The relationship between social change and social stability, and religious beliefs, practices and organisations

Sociological views on religion as a conservative force and, as a force for social change, for stability or conflict.

Durkheim, Marx, Weber

The impact of social change on religious belief, practices and organisations.

Wilson, Bruce, Wallis

Religious organisations, including cults, sects, denominations, churches and New Age movements, and their relationship to religious and spiritual belief and practice

Characteristics of different types of religious organisation.

Troeltsch, Wallis, Wilson

Explanations for growth or decline of different forms of religious organisation.

Wallis, Weber, Barker

The relationship between different social groups and religious/spiritual organisations and movements, beliefs and practices

Patterns of religiosity among different social groups, such as social class, ethnicity, gender and age.

Weber, El Sadaawi, Davies

Explanations for changes in these patterns.

Modood et al, Woodhead, Bruce

The significance of religion and religiosity in the contemporary world, including the nature and extent of secularisation in a global context, and globalisation and the spread of religions

Defining and measuring secularisation. The extent of belief and practice.

Wilson, Glock and Stark, Davie

Competing explanations and evidence for secularisation in terms of belief, practice and organisations.

Bruce, Wilson, Weber

Global context of debate including fundamentalism and the growth of religion.

Berger, Davie, Norris and Inglehart

Global development (4.2.6)

Global development is an optional topic at A-level and is assessed on Paper 2 (7192/2).

Specification Content
Development, underdevelopment and global inequality

Different perspectives on the nature, extent and causes of development, underdevelopment and global inequality, including modernisation, dependency, Marxist, neo-liberal, environmentalist and post-development perspectives.

Rostow, Frank, Escobar

Competing definitions and measurements of development, underdevelopment and global inequality.

Rostow, Frank, Collier

Globalisation and its influence on the cultural, political and economic relationships between societies

Sociological debates about the nature, extent, causes and significance of these different aspects of globalisation.

Wallerstein, Cohen and Kennedy, Held and McGrew

The role of transnational corporations (TNCs), non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and international agencies in local and global strategies for development

Sociological debates about the role and effectiveness of these organisations in the development process. Debates about strategies.

Hoogvelt, Moyo, Ellwood

TNCs.

Klein, Sklair, Froebel

Local and national NGOs.

Chambers, Edwards and Hulme, Bebbington et al

International agencies such as the World Bank, IMF, EU, UN, WTO and their associate organisations.

Foster, Stiglitz, Buira

Development in relation to aid and trade, industrialisation, urbanisation, the environment, and war and conflict

Sociological debates about the role of aid, trade, industrialisation and urbanisation in the development process.

Hayter, Sachs, Cohen and Kennedy

The relationship between development and the environment, including debates about sustainable development, environmental change and green growth.

Kingsbury, Ellwood, Brundtland Commission

Debates about the nature and causes of wars and conflict, and the effects of war and conflict on development.

Kaldor, Duffield, Collier

Employment, education, health, demographic change and gender as aspects of development

The changing nature of employment as a result of development.

Leonard, Elson and Pearson, Rostow

The role of education in development, including different education systems.

Lerner, Sen, UNESCO Education for All Global Monitoring Report 2010

Health care systems and the nature of health and illness in developing countries.

Cohen and Kennedy, WHO 2006 report, MacDonald

Trends, causes and significance for development of demographic change, including global population growth.

Malthus, Boserup, Adamson

The significance of gender in relation to development.

Leonard, Pearson, Van der Gaag

The media (4.2.7)

The media is an optional topic at A-level and is assessed on Paper 2 (7192/2).

Specification Content

The new media and their significance for an understanding of the role of the media in contemporary society

Competing views on the nature and significance of digital media in contemporary society.

Boyle, Curran and Seaton, Cornford and Robbins

The growth and diversity of new media; control and use of new media.

Boyle, Cornford and Robbins, Keen

The relationship between ownership and control of the media

Sociological views, including Marxist and postmodernist pluralist, on the ownership and control of the media.

The Frankfurt school, Whale, Levene, Baudrillard

The pattern of ownership.

Curran, GUMG, Bagdikian

The extent to which owners, as opposed to other groups, control the content.

GUMG, Curran, Miliband

The media, globalisation and popular culture

Definitions of culture and the nature, causes and significance of global culture and global media on contemporary society.

Strinati, Ritzer, Lechner and Boli

The effects of globalisation on popular culture and the role of the media, including debates about cultural imperialism.

Flew, Fenton, Storey

The processes of selection and presentation of the content of the news

Sociological views on the social construction of news, including practical, technological, (including the new media), organisational and ideological factors.

Jones, Galtung and Ruge, Davies

The influence of audience, advertisers, the new media, media professionals and government on the content of news.

The Leveson Enquiry, GUMG, Jewkes

Media representations of age, social class, ethnicity, gender, sexuality and disability

The nature, causes, trends and significance of these representations.

Wayne, Newman, Van Djik, Wolf, Batchelor et al, Barnes

Changes in the representations of different groups.

Connell, Hall, McRobbie

The relationship between the media, their content and presentation, and audiences

Different theories concerning the effects of the media on their audience.

Morley, Klapper, Blumer and McQuail, GUMG

Methodological issues of researching media effects, including violent content.

Gauntlett, GUMG, Morrison, Bandura et al

Stratification and differentiation (4.2.8)

Stratification and differentiation is an optional topic at A-level and is assessed on Paper 2 (7192/2).

Specification Content

Stratification and differentiation by social class, gender, ethnicity and age

Functionalist theories of stratification, eg meritocracy and role allocation.

Durkheim, Davis & Moore, Parsons

Marxist theories of stratification, eg relationship to the means of production, alienation, the role of state apparatuses and class consciousness.

Marx, Engels, Wright

Weberian theories of stratification, eg life chances and the interplay of class, status and party/power.

Weber

Feminist theories of stratification, eg patriarchy and different branches of feminism.

Millett, Walby, Firestone, Oakley, Mirza

Postmodernist theories of stratification, eg consumerism as differentiation and subjective aspects of differentiation.

Pakulski & Waters, Grusky, Strinati

Dimensions of inequality: class, status and power; differences in life-chances by social class, gender, ethnicity, age and disability

Explanations of and changes to differences in life chances by social class, eg the upper class, wealth, income, the middle class, the working class, the underclass and differences in health, education and work chances.

Westergaard & Resler, Weber, Marx, Lockwood

Explanations of and changes to differences in life chances by gender, eg the expressive role, gender socialisation, the reserve army of labour and differences in health, education and work chances.

Barron & Norris, Swain, Sharpe

Explanations of and changes to differences in life chances by ethnicity, eg prejudice, discrimination, institutional racism and differences in health, education and work chances.

Rex & Tomlinson, Miles, Modood

Explanations of and changes to differences in life chances by age, eg the impact of an ageing population, the elderly, the young and differences in health, education and work chances.

Aries, Postman, Parsons

Explanations of and changes to differences in life chances by disability, eg social exclusion, poverty and differences in health, education and work chances.

Finkelstein, Shakespeare, Oliver

The problems of defining and measuring social class; occupation, gender and social class

Sociological approaches to the measurement of social class, eg neo-Marxist.

Wright, Runciman

The use of occupation, education and social status in measuring social class.

Registrar General’s Scale, National Statistics Socio-Economic Classification

The problems of defining and measuring social class, eg objective and subjective views of class and occupation, gender and social class.

Giddens, Arber, Gale & Gilbert, Southerton

Changes in structures of inequality, including globalisation and the transnational capitalist class, and the implications of these changes

Changes in structures of inequality and the implications of these changes.

Goldthorpe et al, Savage et al, Pakulski & Waters

Changes to the class structure of the UK.

Marshall et al, Murray, Giddens, Westergaard & Resler

The impact of the global economy and the movement of capital, migration and immigration and its impact on stratification.

Roberts, Savage

The nature, extent and significance of patterns of social mobility

The nature, extent and significance of patterns of social mobility.

Dorling et al, Goldthorpe

Types of social mobility.

Goldthorpe, Payne

Patterns, changes and impacts of social mobility in the UK.

Goldthorpe, Payne, Glass, Sutton Trust

Measurement and studies of social mobility, problems of measuring social mobility and patterns and impacts of social mobility in the UK.

Goldthorpe, Heath & Britten, Stanworth, Saunders, Platt

Crime and deviance (4.3.1)

Crime and deviance is a compulsory topic at A-level and is assessed on Paper 3 of the A-level (7192/3).

Specification Content
Crime, deviance, social order and social control

Functionalist explanations of crime, deviance, social order and social control, eg positive functions of crime, adaptations to strain, types of subculture, differential association.

Durkheim, Merton, A.K.Cohen, Cloward and Ohlin

Marxist and neo-Marxist explanations of crime, deviance, social order and social control, eg criminogenic capitalism, law making and critical criminology.

Marx, Chambliss, Snider, Taylor, Walton & Young

Labelling theory of crime, deviance, social order and social control, eg the social construction of crime, the effects of labelling and deviance amplification.

Becker, Cicourel, Lemert, S.Cohen, Braithwaite

Right realist explanations of crime, deviance, social order and social control, eg the causes of crime and solutions to crime.

Wilson, Murray, Wilson & Kelling, Felson

Left realist explanations of crime, deviance, social order and social control, eg relative deprivation, subcultures and marginalisation.

Young, Lea & Young

The social distribution of crime and deviance by ethnicity, gender and social class, including recent patterns and trends in crime

The social distribution of crime and deviance by ethnicity, including recent patterns and trends and different explanations for these, eg ethnicity and criminality, racism and the criminal justice system and victimisation.

Bowling and Phillips, Gilroy, Hall

The social distribution of crime and deviance by gender, including recent patterns and trends and different explanations for these, eg feminism, the chivalry thesis, sex role theory, social control and liberation thesis.

Pollak, Heidensohn, Carlen

The social distribution of crime and deviance by social class, including recent patterns and trends and different explanations for these, eg selective law enforcement and white-collar crime.

Marx, Lea & Young, Pearce, Merton, Miller

Globalisation and crime in contemporary society; the media and crime; green crime; human rights and state crimes

Globalisation and crime in contemporary society, eg transnational organised crime, global criminal organisations, global capitalism and crimes of the powerful.

Castells, Held, Taylor, Hobbs & Dunningham, Glenny

The media and crime, eg media representations of crime, the media as a cause of crime and moral panics.

S.Cohen, Young, Jewkes, McRobbie & Thornton

Green crime, eg types of green crime and green criminology.

South, Beck, White

Human rights and state crimes, eg war, genocide and torture, and human rights abuses.

McLaughlin, H & J Schwendinger

Crime control, surveillance, prevention and punishment, victims, and the role of the criminal justice system and other agencies

Crime control, surveillance, prevention and punishment, eg crime prevention strategies, and sociological perspectives on punishment.

Durkheim, Rusche & Kirchheimer, Felson, Chaiken, Wilson & Kelling

Patterns of victimisation and explanations for these, eg positivist and critical victimology.

Christie, Miers, Mawby & Walklate, Tombs & Whyte

The role of the criminal justice system and other agencies, eg the role of police, courts and prisons.

Foucault, Garland, S.Cohen

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