Subject content

Unit 1 - CIV1 An Introduction to an aspect of Classical Civilisation 1

Introduction

Introduction

Candidates study one of the following options.

All the options require study in two of the areas specified in the Subject Criteria for Classics.

Option A: Greek Architecture and Sculpture

Greek Architecture and Sculpture

A critical study of significant aspects of the development of Greek public buildings in the sixth, fifth and fourth centuries BC, and the development of free-standing and architectural sculpture in the same period.

The topic requires study in the areas of

architecture

art.

Candidates will be required to demonstrate knowledge, understanding, and the ability to make a reasoned evaluation of

  • changes in architectural and sculptural style, and the reasons for them, as illustrated by:
     
    the following sites and buildings:
    – the fifth century temples and Propylaea of the Athenian Acropolis
    – the Temples of Hera and Zeus, and the Philippeion at Olympia
    – the Tholos at Epidauros
    – the temples at Bassae and Paestum
    and
    the New York kouros, Berlin kore, Anavyssos kouros, Peplos kore, Kritios Boy, Tyrannicides, Charioteer from Delphi, Zeus / Poseidon from Artemision, Riace Warriors, Myron's Diskobolos, Polykleitos' Doryphoros, Paionios' Nike at Olympia, Kephisodotos' Eirene and Ploutos, Praxiteles' Hermes and Dionysos, Apollo Sauroktonos and Knidian Aphrodite, Marathon Boy, and Lysippos' Apoxyomenos
    and
    the sculptures of the temples of Aphaia on Aegina and Zeus at Olympia and those of the Parthenon, and the relationship between the sculptures and the buildings
    and
    the grave monuments of Hegeso and Dexileos and the funerary stele from the River Ilissos (National Museum, Athens, No. 869)
  • the main characteristics of the Doric, Ionic and Corinthian Orders, and their use in the buildings studied
  • the relationship between sculpture and architecture
  • the use of space and the relationship between buildings
  • the uses of Greek sculpture in its public and religious context
  • the techniques and effects of working in marble and bronze
  • the religious, political, cultural, social and aesthetic context of the architecture and sculpture studied.

Option B: Athenian Democracy

Athenian Democracy

A critical study of the political development of Athens in the sixth and fifth centuries BC and the way democracy operated in the second half of the fifth century BC.

The topic requires study in the areas of

history and politics

literature.

Candidates will be required to demonstrate knowledge, understanding, and the ability to make a reasoned evaluation of

  • the following three texts: 
    Aristotle, The Constitution of Athens (excluding chapters I, III, IV, XXIX–XLI, LII–LXIX) as in Aristotle, The Athenian Constitution, tr. P J Rhodes, Penguin, 1984, ISBN 9780140444315 
    and 
    The Constitution of the Athenians
    , as in The Old Oligarch: Pseudo-Xenophon's Constitution of the Athenians, 2nd ed., tr. R Osborne, LACTOR 2, 2004, ISBN 0 903625 318 
    and 
    Aristophanes, The Wasps (as in The Frogs and Other Plays, tr. D Barrett, ed. S Dutta, Penguin, 2007, ISBN 978-0140449693) 
  • the reforms of Solon (including the seisachtheia, classes and their political significance, archonship, Areopagos, assembly, changes to Draco's lawcode, display of laws, right of appeal, third-party redress, possible introduction of a Council of 400) 
  • the tyranny of the Peisistratids (including the reasons why, and the means by which, Attica became more politically and economically stable and unified) 
  • the reforms of Cleisthenes (including demes, tribes, Council of 500, strategoi, possible introduction of ostracism) 
  • the impact of Themistocles and the growth of the Athenian fleet on the development of democracy 
  • the reforms of Ephialtes (Areopagos, assembly, Council of 500, lawcourts) 
  • the reforms of Pericles (including pay and the Citizenship Law) 
  • the emergence of the so-called demagogues, such as Cleon 
  • the working of the democratic constitution in the second half of the fifth century BC (including the concept, rights, duties and composition of the citizen body; role of demes; composition and functions of assembly, Council of 500 and prytaneis; appointment and functions of strategoi and archons; dokimasia and euthuna; composition, procedures and political significance of the lawcourts; liturgies; pay; rotation of office; sortition; ostracism; graphe paranomon
  • the social, economic and political reasons for, and consequences of, the above developments 
  • the structure of the plot of The Wasps, themes, characterisation, use of the chorus, comic techniques and targets whether comic or serious 
  • the nature of the prescribed texts and problems in their use as evidence for the development and operation of Athenian politics.

Option C: Aristophanes and Athens

Aristophanes and Athens

A critical study of three plays by Aristophanes in their theatrical, religious, social and political context.

The topic requires study in the areas of

literature

history and politics.

Candidates will be required to demonstrate knowledge, understanding and the ability to make a reasoned evaluation of

  • the following texts: 
    Aristophanes, The Acharnians (as in Lysistrata and Other Plays, tr. A Sommerstein, Penguin, 2003, ISBN 9780140448146) 
    and 
    Aristophanes, The Knights and Peace (as in The Birds and Other Plays, tr. D Barrett and A Sommerstein, Penguin, 2003, ISBN 9780140449518) 
  • the structure of the plots of the three plays, themes, characterisation, use of the chorus, parabasis, comic techniques and targets whether comic or serious 
  • the conventions and production of comedy at the time 
  • Athenian rituals and festivals referred to in the three plays, including sacrifices, weddings, the Lenaea, Country and City Dionysia, Anthesteria and Apaturia 
  • the working of the Athenian democratic constitution as necessary to appreciate the three plays, including: the rights, duties, composition and classes of the citizen body; composition and functions of assembly, Council of 500 and Executive Committee (prytaneis); appointment, functions and accountability of generals, archons and other officials; composition, procedures and political significance of the lawcourts; liturgies; pay; rotation of office; sortition; ostracism 
  • aspects of the Peloponnesian War as necessary to appreciate the three plays, including: the Megarian Decree and other causes of the Peloponnesian War; the overall strategies of Athens and Sparta in the 420s BC, the reasons for them and consequences for the citizens of Athens; the campaigns at Pylos and Sphacteria and at Amphipolis and their significance; peace negotiations and the Peace of Nicias 
  • important figures in Athenian politics as mentioned in the three plays, including Pericles, Lamachus, Cleon, Nicias, Demosthenes and Hyperbolus.

Option D: Women in Athens and Rome

Women in Athens and Rome

A critical study of freeborn women in Athens in the fifth and fourth centuries BC and in Rome in the second and first centuries BC and the first and early second centuries AD, and the values and attitudes implicit in the position and treatment of women in each society.

The topic requires study in the areas of

society and values

literature.

Candidates will be required to demonstrate knowledge, understanding, and the ability to make a reasoned evaluation of

  • the following texts: 
    extracts 43, 51, 52 69, 71, 86, 88, 89, 90, 165, 166, 168, 170, 172, 173, 174, 233, 243, 244, 245, 246, 247, 260, 262, 263, 267, 408, as numbered in Women's Life in Greece and Rome, M R Lefkowitz and M B Fant, Duckworth, 2nd ed. 1992 or 3rd ed. 2005, ISBN 071563433X 
    and
    Aristophanes, Women at the Thesmophoria (The Poet and the Women) (as in The Frogs and Other Plays, tr. D Barrett, ed. S Dutta, Penguin, 2007, ISBN 978-0140449693) 
  • the legal status and roles of freeborn women in public and private life in Athens and Rome during the periods specified 
  • women's participation in religion (including at funerals and in caring for the dead, and as priestesses; Thesmophoria, Panathenaia and role of Basilinna in Athens; cult of Ceres, Bona Dea and Vestal Virgins in Rome) and the reasons why they were assigned these roles 
  • the values and attitudes implicit in the position and treatment of women in each society 
  • the structure of the plot of Women at the Thesmophoria (The Poet and the Women), themes, characterisation, use of the chorus, comic techniques and targets 
  • the nature of the prescribed texts and problems in their use as evidence for the position and treatment of women.

Option E: Menander and Plautus

Menander and Plautus

A critical study of one comedy by Menander and three comedies by Plautus in their theatrical, religious, cultural and social contexts.

The topic requires study in the areas of

literature

society and values.

Candidates will be required to demonstrate knowledge, understanding, and the ability to make a reasoned evaluation of

  • the following texts:  
    Menander, Old Cantankerous, as in Plays and Fragments, tr. N Miller, Penguin, 1987, ISBN 978-0140445015 
    and
    Plautus, The Ghost, The Rope and Amphitryo, as in The Rope and Other Plays, tr. E F Watling, Penguin, 1975, ISBN 978-0140441369 
  • the structure of the plots 
  • characterisation 
  • the conventions and production of comedy in Athens in the fourth century BC and Rome in the second century BC 
  • comic techniques and effects 
  • themes 
  • the social, religious and cultural contexts as necessary for the appreciation of Menander's and Plautus' humour and serious intent (if any), including
    – the place of women in Athenian and Roman society
    – relationships between family members, especially father and son, and between master and slave
    – religious practices and beliefs
    – the influence of New Comedy on Plautus' plays
    – the values and cultural assumptions implicit in the prescribed comedies.

Option F: The Life and Times of Cicero

The Life and Times of Cicero

A critical study of Cicero's career from 80 to 43 BC.

The topic requires study in the areas of

history and politics

literature.

Candidates will be required to demonstrate knowledge, understanding, and the ability to make a reasoned evaluation of

  • the following texts: 
    Against Verres I and the selection of Cicero's correspondence found in Cicero, Selected Works, tr. M Grant, Penguin, 1974, ISBN 9780140440997, pages 35–100
  • the major events of Cicero's career and their significance (including his defence of Roscius, quaestorship, prosecution of Verres, praetorship, support of Pompey's command against Mithridates, consulship, opposition to Rullus, trial of Rabirius, Catilinarian conspiracy, Bona Dea trial, formation of the first triumvirate, exile, attack on Caesar's Campanian land law, conference at Luca, palinode, support of Caesar's command in Gaul, defence of Vatinius and Gabinius, governorship of Cilicia, Civil War, domination of Caesar and his assassination, rise of Antony and Octavian, Philippics, Second Triumvirate, death)
  • Cicero's aims and achievements (including his background, ability as a public speaker in politics and the courts, relationship with Pompey, Caesar, Clodius, Cato, Antony and Octavian, attitude towards the senate and republican government, desire for concordia ordinum, attitudes towards the provinces)
  • the nature of Roman society, government and politics in the period (including the classes, the institutions and officials of the Roman republic, patronage, optimates and populares, reasons for the failure of the Roman republic)
  • Cicero's relationship with members of his family and Atticus, as included in the prescribed correspondence
  • the techniques Cicero uses in Against Verres I to secure Verres' conviction
  • the purposes, style and tone of the prescribed correspondence.

Unit 2 - CIV2: An introduction to an aspect of Classical Civilisation 2

Introduction

Introduction

Candidates study one of the follwing options.

All the options require study in two of the areas specified in the Subject Criteria for Classics.

Option A: Homer Iliad

Homer Iliad

A critical study of selected books of the Iliad and the religious, cultural and social values implicit in the text.

The topic requires study in the areas of

literature

society and values.

Candidates will be required to demonstrate knowledge, understanding and the ability to make a reasoned evaluation of

  • the following text 
    Homer, Iliad, either tr. E V Rieu, Penguin, 2003, ISBN 978-0140447941, or tr. M Hammond, Penguin, 1987, ISBN 978-0140444445 Books 1, 3, 4, 6, 9, 11 (from Rieu page 196 'So they fought like blazing fire' or from Hammond page 208 'So they fought like burning fire'), 16, 18, 19, 22, 23 and 24
  • the structure of the plot
  • characterisation
  • oral composition
  • narrative and descriptive techniques and their effects (including the use of speeches, similes and other imagery)
  • themes
  • the religious, cultural and social values and concepts implicit in the books prescribed, including
    – the role of fate and the gods
    – relationships between mortals and immortals, men and women, fathers and sons
    – the heroic code  and the concepts of honour and revenge
    – the portrayal of war.

Option B: Homer Odyssey

Homer Odyssey

A critical study of selected books of the Odyssey and the religious, cultural and social values implicit in the text.

The topic requires study in the areas of

literature

society and values.

Candidates will be required to demonstrate knowledge, understanding, and the ability to make a reasoned evaluation of

  • the following text: 
    Homer, Odyssey, tr. E V Rieu, Penguin, rev. ed. 1991 (reprinted 2003), ISBN 978-0140449112 Books 1, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 16, 19, 21, 22 and 23
  • the structure of the plot
  • characterisation
  • oral composition
  • narrative and descriptive techniques and their effects (including the use of speeches, similes and other imagery)
  • theme
  • the religious, cultural and social values and concepts implicit in the books prescribed, including
    – the role of fate and the gods
    – relationships between mortals and immortals, men and women, fathers and sons
    – the heroic code  and the concepts of honour and revenge
    – guest friendship (xenia)
    – the nature of the societies portrayed by Homer in the Odyssey.

Option C: Athenian Vase Painting

Athenian Vase Painting

A critical study of Athenian vase painting in the sixth and fifth centuries BC, in its cultural, religious and social context.

The topic requires study in the areas of

art

society and values.

Candidates will be required to demonstrate knowledge, understanding, and the ability to make a reasoned evaluation of

  • the work of the following painters: the Amasis Painter, Exekias, the Andokides Painter, Euphronios, Euthymides, the Sosias Painter, the Kleophrades Painter, the Berlin Painter, the Brygos Painter, the Niobid Painter, the Achilles Painter and the Meidias Painter
  • the interaction between the workshops represented by the above painters
  • vase shapes and their uses
  • the development of the black-figure, red-figure and white-ground techniques
  • developments in composition, style and visual effect
  • mythological and other subject matter, as illustrated by the above painters, and its visual interpretation
  • the relationship between the painting and the shape and use of the vase
  • the cultural, religious, social and aesthetic values implicit in the vases studied.

Option D: Athenian Imperialism

Athenian Imperialism

A critical study of Athenian imperialism in the period 478 to 404 BC.

The topic requires study in the areas of

history and politics

literature.

Candidates will be required to demonstrate knowledge, understanding and the ability to make a reasoned evaluation of

  • the following texts: 
    Thucydides, The Peloponnesian War, tr. R Warner, Penguin, 1974, ISBN 9780140440393, Book 1, paragraphs 66–125; Book 2, paragraphs 59–65; Book 3, paragraphs 8–15 and 36–50; Book 5, paragraphs 84–116; Book 6, paragraphs 75–88
    and
    The Athenian Empire, 4th ed., tr. R Osborne, LACTOR 1, 2000, ISBN 0903625172, extracts numbered 78 (Khalkis), 190 (the Kleinias Decree), 198 (the Coinage Decree), 216A and 216B (Erythrai), 218 (Miletos) and 219 (Kolophon) 
  • the context, purposes and original arrangements of the Delian League
  • the attitudes and motives of Athens in setting up, enlarging, maintaining and controlling this alliance
  • the role of prominent Athenians (including Cimon, Pericles, Cleon and Alcibiades) in shaping Athenian policy
  • the political and economic advantages and disadvantages of the alliance both for its members and for Athens
  • changes in the organisation of the alliance and treatment of its members (including moving the treasury from Delos to Athens, ending allied congresses on Delos, arrangements for assessing and collecting tribute, the Coinage Decree, religious requirements) and the reasons for the changes
  • the reasons for revolts, the reaction of Athens to them (including Athens' support for and imposition of democracies, and the use of the navy, garrisons, officials (archontes and episkopoi), decrees, oaths of loyalty, proxenoi, cleruchies and Athenian lawcourts) and the difficulties allies faced in carrying out revolts
  • Athenian ambitions in Sicily
  • the reasons for the collapse of Athens and her empire in 404 BC
  • the nature of the prescribed texts and problems in their use as evidence for the development and operation of the Athenian Empire and for changes in Athenian attitudes and motives.

Detailed knowledge of the course of battles and campaigns will not be required.

Option E: Roman Architecture and Town Planning

Roman Architecture and Town Planning

A critical study of the urban architecture and town planning of the Romans in their religious, political, aesthetic, cultural and social context.

The topic requires study in the areas of

architecture

society and values.

Candidates will be required to demonstrate knowledge and understanding, and the ability to make a reasoned evaluation of the following:

  • the town plan and development of Pompeii and Ostia
  • the layout, construction, decoration and function of the following building types and buildings
    – forum and basilica: Pompeii (including the buildings that surround it); Ostia; Rome, Forum of Augustus; Rome, Forum of Trajan (including its associated structures and Trajan's Markets); Rome, Basilica Nova
    – temples: Pompeii, Capitolium, Temple of Apollo; Ostia, Capitolium; Rome, Temples of Mars the Avenger, Pantheon, Portunus (Fortuna Virilis), Trajan, Vesta (in Forum Romanum); Cosa, Capitolium; Nîmes, 'Maison Carrée'
    – baths and water supply: Pompeii, Stabian Baths; Ostia, Forum Baths; Rome, Baths of Caracalla; water supply to these baths and to the cities of Pompeii and Rome
    – theatres and amphitheatres: Pompeii, Large Theatre (including Gladiatorial Barracks), Small/Covered Theatre, Amphitheatre; Ostia, Theatre (including Piazzale delle Corporazioni); Rome, Theatre of Marcellus, Colosseum
    – housing: domus: Pompeii, House of the Faun, House of Loreius Tiburtinus/Octavius Quartio, House of the Menander, House of Pansa, House of Sallust, House of the Tragic Poet, House of the Vettii; Herculaneum, House of the Mosaic Atrium, House of the Stags; insulae: Ostia, House of Amor and Psyche, Cassette-tipo, Garden Houses, House of Diana, and Horrea Epagathiana
  • the use of stone, brick and concrete (including opus incertum, opus reticulatum, opus testaceum)
  • the use of the post and lintel method of construction and of arches, vaults and domes
  • the religious, political, social, cultural and aesthetic values implicit in the town plans and buildings studied.

Detailed knowledge of particular wall-paintings, mosaics and statues will not be required.

Option F: The Second Punic War

The Second Punic War

A critical study of the Second Punic War and its causes from 221 to 201 BC.

The topic requires study in the areas of

history and politics

literature.

Candidates will be required to demonstrate knowledge, understanding and the ability to make a reasoned evaluation of

  • the following texts:
    Livy, The War with Hannibal, tr. A de Sélincourt, Penguin, 1974, ISBN 978-0140441451, Books XXI, XXII, XXIX and XXX
    and
    Plutarch, Fabius Maximus, as in Makers of Rome, tr. I Scott-Kilvert, Penguin, 1975, ISBN 978-0140441581
  • the reasons for the conflict, starting from when Hannibal succeeded Hasdrubal Barca in Spain in 221 BC
  • the subsequent successes and failures of the Romans and Carthaginians, the reasons for them and their significance
  • the role, aims, military and leadership qualities and importance of prominent Carthaginian and Roman personalities in the war (including Hannibal, Hasdrubal Barca, Q. Fabius Maximus, P. Cornelius Scipio Africanus, Laelius, Marcellus, Masinissa, Syphax)
  • changes in Roman policies towards the Carthaginians during the war, the reasons for them and their effects
  • political and social differences between the Romans and Carthaginians as illustrated in the Second Punic War
  • the impact of the Second Punic War on senatorial government
  • the aims, methods and narrative and descriptive techniques of Livy and Plutarch, and the strengths and limitations of the prescribed texts as historical evidence.

Unit 3 - CIV3: A study of an aspect of Classical Civilisation 1

Introduction

Introduction

Candidates study one of the following options.

All options require study in three of the areas specified in the Subject Criteria for Classics.

Candidates will be expected to

  • build on the knowledge and understanding of classical civilisation which they have gained at AS
  • develop further their ability to analyse and evaluate critically a range of classical sources
  • understand the links between the central elements of their chosen course of study.

Option A: Mycenaean Civilisation

Mycenaean Civilisation

A critical study of the value and limitations of archaeological evidence in understanding the nature and development of Mycenaean society and culture.

The topic requires study in the areas of

archaeology

art

society and values.

The synoptic assessment will draw together knowledge, understanding and skills in these three areas. Candidates will be expected to link understanding of the nature of Mycenaean society and its artistic and other achievements to a comparative analysis and evaluation of different kinds of archaeological evidence.

Candidates will be required to demonstrate knowledge, understanding and the ability to make a reasoned evaluation of

  • the evidence provided by
    the structural remains at and near Mycenae, Tiryns and Pylos (including fortifications, palaces and associated buildings, other dwellings, religious sites, shaft graves and tholos tombs) and their relationship with their surrounding countryside and road systems  
    and  
    the archaeological finds from the above sites and Midea (Dendra), Vapheio and the Cape Gelidonya shipwreck (including pottery and clay figurines, metalwork, ivory work, stone carving, painting, Linear B tablets and other material remains)
  • the value and limitations of the above evidence in determining the chronology of the Mycenaean period and in understanding the social, economic and political structure of Mycenaean civilisation and the nature and development of its culture (including warfare, religious practices and beliefs, work, trade, leisure, technology, bureaucracy, architectural and artistic achievements, influence of Minoan civilisation).

Option B: The Persian Wars

The Persian Wars

A critical study of the Persian Wars 490–479 BC and the political, social and cultural values and concepts of the Greeks and Persians.

The topic requires study in the areas of 

history and politics

literature

society and values.

The synoptic assessment will draw together knowledge, understanding and skills in these three areas. Candidates will be expected to link understanding of the events and personalities of the Persian Wars and the societies and values of the Greeks and Persians to a comparative analysis and evaluation of the two literary sources.

Candidates will be required to demonstrate knowledge, understanding and the ability to make a reasoned evaluation of

  • the following texts:
    Herodotus, The Histories, tr. A de Sélincourt, rev. ed. A R Burn, Penguin, 2003, ISBN 9780140449082 Books 6, 7 and 8
    and
    Aeschylus, The Persians (as in Promethus Bound and Other Plays, tr. P Vellacott, Penguin, 1973, ISBN 9780140441123)
  • the nature of these texts as evidence and as representatives of their literary genres
  • the reasons for Darius' invasion at Marathon and for the Athenian victory
  • the reasons for Xerxes' invasion of Greece and for the successes and failures of the Greeks and Persians down to and including the battles of Salamis, Plataea and Mycale
  • the role of prominent Persian and Greek personalities in each invasion (including Darius, Miltiades, Xerxes, Themistocles, Leonidas, Mardonius and Pausanias)
  • the differing attitudes of the Greek states towards Persia (including medism)
  • changes in the relationships between Greek states during the period of the Persian Wars
  • the differing political, social and cultural values and concepts of the Persians and Greeks, as illustrated in the Ionian Revolt and Persian Wars, including
    – the ways in which Greeks viewed themselves as opposites of Persians (for example, free and self- governing as opposed to servile and despotic)
    – the values and concepts implicit in the re-telling of the Persian Wars and the extent to which they were treated as myth.

Option C: Greek Tragedy

Greek Tragedy

A critical study of four tragedies in their religious, cultural and social context.

The topic requires study in the areas of

literature

society and values

philosophy, science and religion.

The synoptic assessment will draw together knowledge, understanding and skills in these three areas. Candidates will be expected to link understanding of Athenian society, religion and values to a comparative analysis and evaluation of the four tragedies.

Candidates will be required to demonstrate knowledge, understanding and the ability to make a reasoned evaluation of

  • the following texts
    Sophocles, King Oedipus and Antigone, as in The Three Theban Plays, tr. R Fagles, Penguin, 1984, ISBN 9780140444254/re-issued 2008, ISBN 978-0199537969
    and
    Euripides, Hippolytus and Medea, as in Medea and Other Plays, tr. J Morwood Oxford World Classics, 1998, ISBN 0192824422
  • the structure of the plots
  • characterisation
  • the conventions and production of tragedies in fifth-century Athens
  • the use of the chorus
  • dramatic techniques and effects
  • themes
  • the religious, cultural and social context and the place of tragedy in Athenian life, including, for example,
    – beliefs in fate and the gods and the nature of human choice and responsibility
    – the roles of, and relationships between, men and women, fathers and sons, mortals and immortals
    – the concept of honour
    – attitudes towards the family and city, friends and enemies
    – the nature of political leadership
    – the use of mythology to explore issues of contemporary relevance
    – the values and cultural assumptions implicit in the prescribed tragedies.

Option D: Augustus and the Foundation of the Principate

Augustus and the Foundation of the Principate

A critical study of the career of Augustus between 44 BC and AD 14.

The topic requires study in the areas of

history and politics

literature

society and values.

The synoptic assessment will draw together knowledge, understanding and skills in these three areas. Candidates will be expected to link understanding of the sources and contemporary Roman values to a comparative analysis and evaluation of a range of aspects of Augustus' career.

Candidates will be required to demonstrate knowledge, understanding and the ability to make a reasoned evaluation of

  • the evidence provided by the following 
    Res Gestae Divi Augusti, tr. with commentary by P A Brunt and J M Moore, Oxford University Press, 1967, ISBN 978-0198317722 
    and 
    Suetonius, Augustus, as in The Twelve Caesars, tr. R Graves, Penguin, rev. ed. 1979 (reprinted 2003), ISBN 978-0140449211 
    and 
    Ara Pacis Augustae, Forum of Augustus, Prima Porta statue of Augustus
  • the major events of Augustus' career in establishing peace and founding the Principate
  • the basis of his power; his attitude towards the constitution and republican precedents; the manipulation of opinion
  • his relationship with senate and equites
  • his building programme and other measures to improve life in the city of Rome
  • reasons for, details and significance of his social legislation and religious policy
  • foreign policy, the consolidation of the empire and the Pax Romana
  • arrangements for the administration of Italy and the provinces
  • the imperial family and issues relating to the succession
  • the nature of the evidence and its interpretation.

Unit 4 - CIV4: A study of an aspect of Classical Civilisation 2

Introduction

Introduction

Candidates study one of the following options.

All options require study in three of the areas specified in the Subject Criteria for Classics.

Candidates will be expected to

  • build on the knowledge and understanding of classical civilisation which they have gained at AS
  • develop further their ability to analyse and evaluate critically a range of classical sources
  • understand the links between the central elements of their chosen course of study.

Option A: Socrates and Athens

Socrates and Athens

A critical study of Socrates' philosophical interests and methods in their intellectual, religious, political, social and cultural context.

The topic requires study in the areas of

philosophy, science and religion

literature

society and values.

The synoptic assessment will draw together knowledge, understanding and skills in these three areas. Candidates will be expected to link understanding of Athenian society, religion and values to a comparative analysis and evaluation of the literary purposes and techniques and philosophical methods and arguments of at least two of the texts.

Candidates will be required to demonstrate knowledge, understanding and the ability to make a reasoned evaluation of

  • the following texts
    Plato, Euthyphro, Apology, Crito and Phaedo 115b–end, as in The Last Days of Socrates, tr. H Tredennick, rev. ed. H Tarrant, Penguin, 2003 ISBN 978-0140449280
    and
    Aristophanes, The Clouds, as in Lysistrata and Other Plays, tr. A Sommerstein, Penguin, rev. ed. 2003, ISBN 978-0140448146
  • the circumstances and procedure of Socrates' trial and execution
  • Socrates' philosophical interests and methods, his character, principles, assumptions and attitude towards life and death, as portrayed in the prescribed texts
  • Socrates' relation to the Sophists
  • the intellectual, religious, political, social and cultural context of Socrates' life
  • differences in the nature of the prescribed texts, including form, purposes, techniques and presentation of Socrates
  • strengths and weaknesses in the arguments in the prescribed texts by Plato and their philosophical significance
  • the suitability of the dialogue form for the exploration of philosophical ideas.

Option B: Alexander

Alexander

A critical study of Alexander's career between 336 and 323 BC.

The topic requires study in the areas of

history and politics

literature

society and values.

The synoptic assessment will draw together knowledge, understanding and skills in these three areas. Candidates will be expected to link understanding of the literary sources and contemporary values to a comparative analysis and evaluation of a range of Alexander's policies and actions.

Candidates will be required to demonstrate knowledge, understanding and the ability to make a reasoned evaluation of

  • the following texts:
    Arrian, The Campaigns of Alexander, tr. A de Sélincourt, Penguin, rev. ed. 1971 or 1976, ISBN 9780140442533, Books 2, 3 and 7
    and
    Plutarch, Alexander, Chapter 7 in The Age of Alexander, tr. I Scott-Kilvert, Penguin, 1973, ISBN 9780140442861
  • the major events of Alexander's career and their significance (including Alexander's accession to the Macedonian throne, appointment as Hegemon and strategos autokrator of the League of Corinth, campaigns on Lower Danube and against Illyrians, destruction of Thebes and arrangements for Greece, arrival in Asia Minor, battle of River Granicus, settlement of Asia Minor, stay at Gordium, battle of Issus, submission of Phoenician cities, sieges of Tyre and Gaza, occupation of Egypt, foundation of Alexandria, expedition to oracle of Ammon, battle of Gaugamela, occupation of Babylon, Susa and Persepolis, campaigns of 330 to 327 BC, 'conspiracy' of Philotas, murder of Cleitus, conspiracy of the Pages, battle of the River Hydaspes, mutiny at the River Hyphasis, march through the Gedrosian Desert, voyage of Nearchus, journey to Pasargadae and Susa, mass marriages, Exiles decree, mutiny at Opis, death of Hephaestion, return to Babylon and death)
  • Alexander's aims (including personal, political, military, economic, exploratory and cultural considerations)
  • Alexander's achievements as monarch, military commander (including his strengths and weaknesses in strategy, tactics, military organisation, leadership in battle, his relationship with his officers and men and treatment of opponents) and administrator (including arrangements for administering his various conquests, adoption of Persian practices and dress, foundation of cities)
  • Alexander's attitude towards the gods (including his own divine parentage and divinity) and mythological and historical precedents (including Achilles, Perseus, Herakles, Dionysus, Philip II and Cyrus the Great)
  • Alexander's relationship with the mainland Greeks
  • the aims, methods, sources and judgements of Arrian and Plutarch and problems in their use as evidence.

Option C: Roman Epic

Roman Epic

A critical study of selected books of the Aeneid in its religious, political, cultural and social context.

The topic requires study in the areas of

literature

society and values

philosophy, science and religion.

The synoptic assessment will draw together knowledge, understanding and skills in these three areas. Candidates will be expected to link understanding of Roman society, religion and values to a comparative analysis and evaluation of the books of the Aeneid specified below.

Candidates will be required to demonstrate knowledge, understanding and the ability to make a reasoned evaluation of

  • the following text:
    Virgil, Aeneid, tr. D.West, Penguin 2003 ISBN 978-0140449327, Books 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11 and 12
  • the structure of the plot
  • characterisation
  • narrative and descriptive techniques and their effects (including use of flashback, similes and other imagery)
  • themes
  • the Homeric and Roman elements
  • the religious, political, social and cultural context, including
    – belief in fate and the gods
    – the nature of human responsibility
    – the roles of, and relations between, mortals and immortals, men and women, fathers and sons, Trojans, Greeks, Carthaginians and Italians
    – concepts of heroism
    – Aeneas' and Rome's destiny and mission
    – the links between the Aeneid and the historical circumstances in which it was composed
    – the values and cultural assumptions implicit in the Aeneid.

Option D: Tiberius and Claudius

Tiberius and Claudius

A critical study of how the Principate functioned and developed in the reigns of Tiberius (AD 14–37) and Claudius (AD 41–54), and of the political, social and religious values and concepts of the period.

The topic requires study in the areas of

history and politics

literature

society and values. 

The synoptic assessment will draw together knowledge, understanding and skills in these three areas. Candidates will be expected to link understanding of the literary sources and contemporary Roman society and values to a comparative analysis and evaluation of the two emperors' reigns.

Candidates will be required to demonstrate knowledge, understanding, and the ability to make a reasoned evaluation of

  • the following texts:
    Tacitus, Annals, tr. M Grant, Penguin, rev ed., 1973 (reprinted 1989), chapters 4, 6 and 9 (= Annals 2.27–52, 3.19–76, 11.1–38), ISBN 978-0140440607
    and
    Suetonius, Tiberius (excluding §§ 1–13) and Claudius, as in The Twelve Caesars, tr. R Graves, Penguin, rev ed. 1979 (reprinted 2003), ISBN 978-0140449211
  • the accession of each emperor and the major events of each reign
  • the parts played by the emperors, senators, equites, and freedmen in the administration of Rome, Italy and the Empire
  • the relationship between the emperors and the senate (including legislation, administration of justice, treason trials, opposition to the emperors)
  • the role and influence of the Praetorian Guard and its commanders
  • the emperors' handling of public finances (including provision of public works, spectacles, examples of perceived generosity, extravagance and meanness)
  • the influence of the women of the imperial household
  • the imperial family and issues relating to the succession
  • the personal life of the emperors, appearance, character, way of life, interests
  • the political, economic and social impact of the Principate on the lives of senators, equites and the people of Rome, Italy and the provinces
  • the political, cultural and social values and concepts of the period, including
    – the constitutional basis of the Principate
    – concepts of autocracy and freedom
    – Roman attitudes to provinces and provincials
    – attitudes to emperor worship and foreign cults
  • the aims, methods, sources and judgements of Tacitus and Suetonius and problems in their use as evidence.