16 Further Pure 1

Candidates will be expected to be familiar with the knowledge, skills and understanding implicit in the modules Core 1 and Core 2.

Candidates will also be expected to know for section 16.6 that the roots of an equation can be located by considering changes of sign of in an interval of in which is continuous.

Candidates may use relevant formulae included in the formulae booklet without proof.


Graphs of rational functions of the form.


Sketching the graphs.

Finding the equations of the asymptotes which will always be parallel to the coordinate axes.

Finding points of intersection with the coordinate axes or other straight lines.

Solving associated inequalities.

Using quadratic theory (not calculus) to find the possible values of the function and the coordinates of the maximum or minimum points on the graph.

Eg for

which has real roots if , ie if ; stationary points are and

Graphs of parabolas, ellipses and hyperbolas with equations


Sketching the graphs.

Finding points of intersection with the coordinate axes or other straight lines. Candidates will be expected to interpret the geometrical implication of equal roots, distinct real roots or no real roots.

Knowledge of the effects on these equations of single transformations of these graphs involving translations, stretches parallel to the -axis or -axis, and reflections in the line .

Including the use of the equations of the asymptotes of the hyperbolas given in the formulae booklet.

Non-real roots of quadratic equations. Complex conjugates – awareness that non-real roots of quadratic equations with real coefficients occur in conjugate pairs.
Sum, difference and product of complex numbers in the form
Comparing real and imaginary parts. Including solving equations eg where is the
conjugate of .
Manipulating expressions
involving and .
Forming an equation with roots or etc.
Use of formulae for the sum of the squares and the sum of the cubes of the natural numbers. Eg to find a polynomial expression for


Finding the gradient of the tangent to a curve at a point, by taking the limit as tends to zero of the gradient of a chord joining two points whose -coordinates differ by . The equation will be given as , where is a simple polynomial such as .
Evaluation of simple improper integrals. E.g.
Finding roots of equations by interval bisection, linear interpolation and the Newton-Raphson method. Graphical illustration of these methods.
Solving differential equations of the form Using a step-by-step method based on the linear approximations with given values for and .
Reducing a relation to a linear law. E.g.
Use of logarithms to base 10 where appropriate.
Given numerical values of , drawing a linear graph and using it to estimate the values of the unknown constants.
General solutions of trigonometric equations including use of exact values for the sine, cosine and tangent of Eg ,
and matrices; addition and subtraction, multiplication by a scalar. Multiplying a matrix by a matrix or by a matrix.
The identity matrix for a matrix.
Transformations of points in the plane represented by matrices. Transformations will be restricted to rotations about the origin, reflections in a line through the origin, stretches parallel to the -axis and -axis, and enlargements with centre the origin.
Use of the standard transformation matrices given in the formulae booklet.
Combinations of these transformations