3.10 Managing strategic change (A-level only)

Managing change


Additional information

Causes of and pressures for change

Types of change include:

  • internal change
  • external change
  • incremental change
  • disruptive change.

Managing change should include:

  • Lewin’s force field analysis.

The value of change


The value of a flexible organisation

Flexible organisations include:

  • restructuring
  • delayering
  • flexible employment contracts
  • organic structures v mechanistic
  • knowledge and information management.

The value of managing information and knowledge


Barriers to change

Kotter and Schlesinger’s four reasons for resistance to change

How to overcome barriers to change

Kotter and Schlesinger's six ways of overcoming resistance to change

Managing organisational culture


Additional information

The importance of organisational culture

Cultural models should include:

  • Handy’s task culture, role culture, power culture and person culture
  • Hofstede’s national cultures.

The influences on organisational culture


The reasons for and problems of changing organisational culture


Managing strategic implementation


Additional information

How to implement strategy effectively


The value of leadership in strategic implementation


The value of communications in strategic implementation


The importance of organisational structure in strategic implementation

Organisational structures to include: functional, product based, regional and matrix structure.

The value of network analysis in strategic implementation

Network analysis to include:

  • understanding and interpreting network diagrams
  • amendment of network diagrams
  • identifying the critical path and total float.

Problems with strategy and why strategies fail


Additional information

Difficulties of strategic decision making and implementing strategy


Planned v emergent strategy


Reasons for strategic drift


The possible effect of the divorce between ownership and control

The effect of the divorce between ownership and control to include corporate governance.

Evaluating strategic performance


The value of strategic planning


The value of contingency planning